Endocervix cysts: normal sizes, and when treatment is needed

Nature created the female body as a carefully thought-out and well-functioning system for the continuation of the human race, in connection with which, the main task of every woman is the careful bearing, and, subsequently, the birth of a healthy child. Basically, the reproductive system of the female body is located in the pelvis, the cervical canal or cervical canal is one of its most important organs, which is of great importance in pregnancy and childbirth.

The cervical canal is a part of the cervix that connects the vagina to the uterine cavity. From the side of the vagina, it ends with an external pharynx (opening) leading from the vaginal cavity to the uterine cavity. From the uterus, the internal pharynx opens. In general, the length of the cervical canal is 3-4 centimeters, the thickness is 7-8 millimeters. From the inside, the cervical canal is lined with cells of a single-layer cylindrical epithelium, in which there are multiple recesses - glands that produce mucus.

With blockage of the glands of the mucous membrane of the cervix, cysts form (Nabotov cysts). This is due to the fact that the outflow of the substrate is difficult and when it accumulates, the duct walls begin to stretch. This often happens with inflammatory processes (cervicitis and colpitis) in the cervical canal. The cause of the formation of endocervix cysts can also be cauterization of cervical erosion.

In general, a cyst is a benign mass with a porridge or liquid content. The main symptoms indicating its development are possible irregularities in the menstrual cycle, drawing pain in the lower abdomen, inflammation of the appendages, etc. A cyst of the cervical canal is a fairly common pathology that occurs in women of childbearing age.

Cervical cysts are single and multiple, in most cases their treatment is not required, because they do not cause any complications, are not transmitted through sexual intercourse, do not harm the health of women and can often resolve themselves. The opening and evacuation of contents are only large formations that severely deform the cervix and continue to increase.

Cysts, as a rule, are not affected by pregnancy and can even spontaneously disappear after childbirth. According to some reports, cysts are found in 10% of women aged 25-45 years.

Endocervix cysts can be determined by:

· Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) of the cervix - when they appear in the form of hypoechoic formations,

· Advanced colposcopy - one of the most informative research methods. Inspection is carried out using a special microscope, which allows you to study the cervix in detail. It is this method that allows the patient to make the most accurate diagnosis after an ultrasound scan and suspicion of a cyst,

PAP smear - Pap smear test. This method allows you to determine the initial stage of precancerous changes in the tissues of the cervix. It is carried out using a specially selected composition of paints and fixers,

Oncocytological smear examination,

· A smear test for urogenital infections.

In each case, if a cyst is detected, only the attending physician can prescribe the appropriate treatment after receiving all the results of the diagnostic examination of the woman.

Most often, a cervical cyst resection is performed using a laser, especially if the neoplasm is located close to the vaginal segment of the cervix and is visible in the mirrors. The treatment procedure is not painful at all; it has established itself as one of the most effective. From the time you take the tests to the end of a simple operation, it takes only a few days, but after treatment, the woman will have to see a doctor for several months.

If the cyst is located in close proximity to the exocervix (the outer part of the cervical canal), then its removal is possible by radio wave surgery under local anesthesia. In this case, the cyst is punctured and there is an outflow of its contents.

The cryotherapy method is indicated for deeply located cysts of the cervical canal. It is based on the effects of low temperatures obtained using liquid nitrogen. A necessary condition for cryotherapy is the absence of inflammatory processes in the genitals of a woman. The operation is performed on an outpatient basis, within a few days after the end of menstruation.

As preventive measures to prevent diseases of the genital organs, women should remember to regularly attend a antenatal clinic (at least once a year), observe intimate hygiene and make a reasonable choice of sexual partners. In addition, timely diagnosis significantly increases the chances of a complete cure for any disease!

Expert Editor: Pavel A. Mochalov | D.M.N. general practitioner

Education: Moscow Medical Institute I. Sechenov, specialty - "Medical business" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".

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What is an endocervix cyst, features and types

For the convenience of describing pathological processes, the part of the cervix that is visible during examination in gynecological mirrors is called exocervix, and everything that is not accessible to the eye is called endocervix.

The inner surface of the cervical canal is lined with epithelial cells (nabot glands) that are capable of synthesizing secretions. They form a mucous plug in the normal state and during pregnancy. The work glands can become clogged, accumulating a secret inside itself that continues to be synthesized, but cannot exit. This leads to the expansion of the duct, the enlargement of the gland in size and it transforms into a capsule with liquid. This is the endocervix cyst - nabotova or retention.

Such neoplasms have a benign nature, can appear in different numbers and reach sizes from 1-2 mm to 5-6 cm or more. The following types of endocervix cysts are distinguished:

  • single - such endocervix cysts are most common, prone to increase in size,
  • multiple - can be located in groups or singly, more often have small sizes.

Why formations are developing

The formation of retention cysts occurs under the influence of the following factors:

  • inflammation - a special role is played by cervicitis, colpitis, lesions of the human papillomavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes,
  • damage - tears after childbirth, cauterization, surgical interventions on the cervix.

Small cysts of endocervix are often formed due to scarring of the inner layer after treatment of cervical erosion. They become noticeable not immediately, but after a few months.

Endometrioid cysts are more often formed due to numerous abortions and childbirth, gynecological manipulations (for example, after taking a biopsy, diagnostic curettage, removal of polyps, installation of an intrauterine device).

Small cervical endocervix cysts can exist imperceptibly and can only be detected during a preventive examination. Large neoplasms make themselves felt by the following symptoms:

  • bursting and pulling pains in the lower abdomen,
  • bleeding,
  • pain and daub after an intimate relationship,
  • infertility.

If you have any complaints, you should consult a doctor for a detailed examination and diagnosis. Only a specialist can determine whether treatment is needed and to what extent.


The signs of endocervix cysts are nonspecific, therefore, a comprehensive examination is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis.

  • Gynecological examination . Cysts look like formations of light gray or burgundy color with a round shape. However, they can be seen only when located on the exocervix. Diagnosis of endocervix cysts in this way is impossible.
  • Colposcopy It helps to identify even small nabotov cysts (but located on the outer surface of the neck), to diagnose with endometrioid cysts.
  • Ultrasound procedure . During ultrasound of the cervix, cysts are visible as single or multiple anechogenic masses from 1-2 mm to 5-6 cm in diameter or more.
  • Cytological smear. Helps to eliminate inflammation, the presence of malignant cells in the area of ​​cysts.

Permissible (normal) sizes of endocervix cysts are within 1-2 cm. Such cystic formations that do not bother a woman do not require conservative and surgical treatment. It is enough to be regularly observed by a specialist, to lead a healthy lifestyle.

If formations reach large sizes or become complicated, they must be removed. To do this, use the following methods.

  • Radio wave removal. The cystic capsule is punctured, its drainage is carried out and the liquid is removed - a viscous thick content, when an inflammation with an unpleasant odor is attached. The capsule remains or burns out.
  • Laser removal. Used in cases where cysts are located near the exocervix and are clearly visible when examined with the help of mirrors.
  • Cryotherapy Cysts are exposed to liquid nitrogen.
  • Removal with a scalpel. The part of the cervix is ​​excised along with the nabot cysts.

Folk methods

With small sizes of cysts, folk remedies can be used as the main therapy or prevention of a further increase in the size of formations. However, before treatment at home, you should consult your doctor.

  • The garlic. It is recommended to take a clove and wrap it with a bandage so that a swab is obtained. Introduce into the vagina at night for a month.
  • Eggs and pumpkin seeds. Take the yolks of eight boiled eggs and chop to a powder. Add 20 g of chopped pumpkin seeds and 0.5 l of sunflower oil. Place the mixture in a water bath for a quarter of an hour, mix regularly. Take one incomplete tablespoon before breakfast for a week.
  • Burdock leaves. 100 g of fresh leaves should be crushed and squeezed through cheesecloth juice. Drink the resulting liquid one teaspoon twice a day for a month.
  • Infusion of herbs. Chamomile flowers, nettle leaves, celandine, sea buckthorn, plantain, wild rose, take 5 g each and steam with boiling water. Insist seven to eight hours. Take 10 ml twice a day for 14 days.
  • Butter and honey. Take the ingredients in the ratio 3/1. Form candles from the resulting mass, which should be stored in the refrigerator in the future. Use one candle in the vagina at bedtime for seven days.


Even if the endocervix cysts are small, they do not bother the woman, they require control. Large neoplasms are dangerous, as they can cause infertility - they block the cervical canal, thereby creating a mechanical barrier to the penetration of spermatozoa.

Endocervix cyst is a benign neoplasm, a capsule with a liquid that is formed due to blockage of the glands of the cervical mucosa. With small sizes, such cysts are asymptomatic, with large ones they bother with pain, secretions, and other complications are possible. In the first option, treatment of endocervix cysts may not be used, in the second - therapy is selected individually for each case after a thorough examination.

What is a cyst of the cervical canal

Cervical kagala cyst is a benign neoplasm that consists of a capsule with a liquid content

To correctly understand the nature of this disease, we learn what the cervical canal is. This is a small portion of the cervix that connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. The length of this channel is usually 4 cm. On its surface there are glands that produce mucus.

When they become clogged, cysts appear - benign formations in which fluid accumulates.

Clogging of the glands of the endocervix, the mucous membrane, can occur for various reasons. Women who have given birth more often fall into the risk group, but young women who do not have children can also fall into this category.

The cyst does not manifest itself in any way and does not cause health problems, therefore it is difficult for a woman to detect the disease on her own or at least suspect it.

Often, such neoplasms can disappear on their own. If they are identified, a woman can safely plan a pregnancy, since this ailment does not pose any danger to either the fetus or mother.

Causes and symptoms of pathology

Pain in the lower abdomen, menstrual irregularities, spotting - a sign of a cyst of the cervical canal

There are not so many reasons for obstruction of the glands of the cervical canal, but every third woman in childbearing age encounters them. That is why it is so important to constantly be monitored by a doctor for the timely detection of the disease.

There are the following number of reasons:

  • Cysts can form in the postoperative period, for example, after removal of erosion.
  • Due to hormonal disorders. Endometrial cells grow too quickly and enter the uterine cavity.
  • Inflammatory processes of the reproductive organs - ovaries, cervix.
  • Cervical infection. This can happen, for example, when wearing a spiral.

Cysts can be either single or multiple. When they are detected, medical or surgical treatment is often not required. They do not bother a woman and do not bear any threat to life or the ability to conceive. However, there are also difficult cases when the neoplasm is too large and causes discomfort and pain. This happens very rarely and is associated with a special arrangement of the cyst.

As already noted, the symptoms in the formation of a cyst may be absent altogether, or they are so insignificant that a woman does not pay attention to them. But with a certain location of the cyst, the following symptoms may occur:

  • Menstrual irregularities. The nature of the discharge often changes - there are either more or less of them.
  • Drawing and dull pain in the lower abdomen. There is a feeling of heaviness, a feeling of bloating.
  • Inflammation of the appendages with appropriate aching pain may occur.
  • A woman can feel the presence of a foreign body in the vagina. This rarely happens, but this symptom clearly indicates a neoplasm.

The most common complaints when contacting a doctor are menstrual irregularities.

Another sign is spotting, which occurs regardless of menstruation.

The sacrum appears with the formation of a cyst in the region of the posterior lip of the cervix. Spotting often appears after sexual intercourse. Another symptom may be bleeding during urination. This occurs during the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of a cyst of the cervical canal are implicit. More often, the disease is already detected by the gynecologist during a standard examination and collection of smears.

Possible complications

Complications from a disease such as a cyst of the cervical canal are very few. They are quite rare, but have a place to be. In these cases, surgery or hormone therapy is often indicated.

Possible complications include:

  • Infertility, which is also called cervical. This happens due to the growth of the cyst, it completely blocks the cervical canal.As a result, the desired pregnancy does not occur.
  • Infection of tumor contents due to viruses. Suppuration occurs in the cyst - this can cause an abscess.
  • Under the influence of the proliferation of one or more tumors, cervical deformation occurs.

All these possible complications are unlikely to appear in a woman who regularly visits the gynecologist’s office and takes care of her health. If the examination is carried out from case to case, the risk of such situations increases significantly.

Diagnostic Methods

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs - an effective diagnosis of cysts of the cervical canal

The disease is very often detected at the stage of a standard examination by a gynecologist with the help of mirrors or a colposcope - a microscope with which the doctor can carefully examine the cervix.

Then follow the remaining stages of the study, namely:

  • Ultrasound At this stage, the sizes of the neoplasm and other possible pathologies of the small pelvis are revealed.
  • Collection of smears to identify the nature of the tumor - tumor markers.
  • Collection of smears for the detection of infectious or fungal diseases. If there are inflammations in the cervical cavity, treatment begins with them. After that, a puncture or removal of the cyst is performed, if necessary.
  • Pap smear collection. This analysis gives a picture of precancerous changes in tissues. Research is needed to rule out cancer.

After conducting a thorough study and studying the full picture of the disease, the doctor decides whether cyst treatment is necessary or not. As a rule, they do not touch her, since the neoplasm does not pose a danger to the health of a woman. But in some cases, either medical or surgical treatment will be required.

Methods for the treatment and removal of cysts

Removal of a cyst of the cervical canal is prescribed only when it causes complications

Treatment is not required in all cases. Medication and surgery will be required only in the following cases:

  • The cyst is located in the vaginal part and causes discomfort to the woman.
  • According to the results of the study, degeneration of a benign tumor into a malignant neoplasm was revealed.
  • The cyst is removed, if it causes discomfort, contributes to the violation of the menstrual cycle and the nature of its course, is the cause of constant pain.
  • The contents of the cyst are infected and cause an abscess.
  • Neoplasm is the cause of infertility.

If the disease is to be treated, they resort to several methods - radio wave surgery, cryotherapy, laser surgery and radiosurgical puncture. Let's consider each method in more detail:

  1. Radio wave surgery is designed to completely remove the neoplasm. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia. More often it is prescribed if the cyst is located at the outside of the cervical canal.
  2. A radiosurgical puncture is characterized in that the cyst tissues remain in the canal cavity. The fluid is removed after a puncture.
  3. Cryotherapy is used with a special arrangement of cysts. If it is deep in the tissues, it is more advisable to remove it with liquid nitrogen. The procedure is painless. The main condition for cryotherapy is the absence of infectious diseases.
  4. Laser surgery - they resort to it more often than to all other methods. The procedure is shown if the cyst is located close to the vaginal part. The operation is painless, carried out quickly. After that, constant monitoring by a gynecologist is required.

More information about the pathologies of the cervix can be found in the video:

Medication usually involves a hormonal effect on the body. If it was unsuccessful, the doctor prescribes one of the surgical procedures. If the formation of a cyst is provoked by infectious diseases, antibiotic therapy is prescribed.

These stages of drug treatment depend on the type of infection. Endocervicitis, for example, is treated with systemic antibiotics. The vaginal infection is local antimicrobial agents. Cyst removal is performed after or along with background treatment.

Medication or surgery is not performed in the following cases:

  • Tests did not show the presence of any infections.
  • The woman did not show hormonal disruptions or disorders.
  • Ectopy of the cervix is ​​not detected.

Such a cyst is not touched, so it does not bother and does not pose a danger to life. In this case, a woman is observed, once every six months they collect the appropriate tests and conduct an examination. As soon as the nature of the cyst and its size begin to change, the doctor may prescribe treatment.


Before treating a neoplasm with traditional medicine, it is necessary to consult a doctor

Traditional medicine claims that traditional treatment is ineffective in the case of a cyst. However, many gynecologists, prescribing the traditional treatment regimen, do not neglect the appointment of some medicinal fees.

They, of course, are not the main method of treatment, but contribute to a faster cure. The use of decoctions of wormwood, burdock root or snake mountaineer is recommended. Sometimes, at the initial stage of cyst development, tampons moistened with aloe juice are prescribed.

As a rule, the use of decoctions and douching is aimed at enhancing the immune system and reparative functions of tissues. Many praise the recipe for tincture of viburnum with honey.

However, traditional medicine claims that the use of herbs, berries and other plant materials is ineffective in the treatment of cysts.

To argue about the effectiveness of a particular treatment is impractical. It is important for a woman to see a doctor on time and monitor her health. If the specialist considers the use of herbal supplements as an addition to the main treatment necessary, the patient should follow all prescribed procedures and take what the doctor has prescribed. Self-treatment with alternative methods is undesirable.

Timely detection of the disease and adequate treatment will not lead to complications. As a prevention of cyst formation, doctors recommend a reasonable sexual life without frequent changes of partners, eat right, play sports and regularly visit a gynecologist. With timely treatment, modern medicine can cure almost all diseases without bringing them to a critical moment.

Causes of cervical cervical canal

The cervical canal is, in other words, the cervical canal connecting the vagina and the uterine cavity. The canal is lined with a cylindrical epithelium from the inside, in which the cervical (nabotov) glands that produce mucus are located.

Sometimes the mouth of the cervical glands is clogged with a thick mucous secretion. As a result, iron increases and turns into retention (work) cyst of the cervix. Retention cysts are found in approximately 15% of women.

It is believed that the following factors contribute to their occurrence:

  • Inflammation of the cervix uteri - endocervicitis,
  • Hormonal imbalance,
  • Various gynecological manipulations.

The cervix can also form endometrioid cysts. As the name suggests, this is a cyst from endometriotic tissue. Normally, endometrioid tissue is located in the uterine cavity, however, with a disease such as endometriosis, it can enter the cervical canal and grow there in the form of a cyst with bloody contents.

Endometrioid cysts are often combined with proliferation of the endometrium in other organs. It is believed that the occurrence of endometrioid cysts can contribute to injury to the cervical mucosa during labor, abortion, and various gynecological manipulations.

Depending on the location, these types of cysts are distinguished:

  1. Endocervical (localized inside the cervical canal),
  2. Paracervical (localized in the vaginal part of the cervix).

One or several cysts may form in the cervix. Often the cysts are small - grow up to 1 centimeter, but sometimes they can reach 2-3 centimeters.

Thus, two types of cysts can form in the cervix: retention and endometrioid, having different developmental mechanisms. A retention cyst is a mucus-filled and enlarged cervical gland of the cervical mucosa, and an endometrioid cyst is a cavity with fluid formed from endometrioid tissue.

Symptoms of cervical cervical cysts

Very often, the disease is asymptomatic and the woman learns about the presence of a cyst by chance when undergoing a gynecological examination. Symptoms appear if the cyst reaches a large size, when there are many cysts, or when an infection joins.

The main symptoms of cervical cysts are:

  1. Pain during sex
  2. Pus vaginal discharge with a fetid odor - in the presence of inflammation,
  3. Bloody discharge between menstruation - with endometrioid cysts.

Essential diagnostic tests

Cervical cysts are primarily detected by a doctor during a gynecological examination. So, on the cervical mucosa, the doctor may notice a whitish formation (retention cyst) or a red focus (endometrioid cyst).

If a cervical cyst is detected, a woman will need to undergo a number of studies. This is necessary first of all in order to clarify what this formation is all the same: an ordinary cyst or a tumor?

So, for the diagnosis of cervical cysts, doctors prescribe such studies:

Treatment of cervical cervical cysts

Small cysts of the cervix are not dangerous, because they do not affect the possibility of conception, are not complicated and do not become malignant. Large cysts can deform the cervix. It is also important to remember that a cyst can occur against a background of cervicitis or endometriosis, which themselves require treatment.

Based on this position, small retention rooms do not require active treatment, they are monitored. However, large cysts or those complicated by infection, must be treated.

The main method for treating cervical cysts is surgical. It is impossible to cure the disease with medication alone.

If there are signs of cervical inflammation, they first carry out anti-inflammatory drug therapy and only after that they begin surgical treatment.

Surgical intervention is carried out using an electrocoagulator, a cryocoagulator or a laser knife. The operation is carried out in three stages:

  1. Puncture of the cyst wall,
  2. Removing the contents of the cyst,
  3. Coagulation of the wound surface.

In the presence of multiple cysts that deform the cervix, a radical operation can be performed - excision of the cervix, which involves excision of damaged organ tissue.

Grigorova Valeria, doctor, medical observer

What it is

To more accurately understand the nature of such a pathology, it is necessary to understand what the cervical canal is. It is a small part of the cervix connecting the uterus to the vagina. Usually the length of this channel is 4 cm. It contains glands on its surface that produce mucus. If they become clogged, this becomes the cause of the formation of benign pathologies - cysts, inside which fluid collects.

Such blockage can occur for quite a variety of reasons. But the main risk group is women giving birth, which does not exclude the possibility of the appearance of such a situation in young girls. In addition, such a pathology may not manifest itself at all for a long time, and also not bring any health problems. Due to this, it is almost impossible to identify or even suspect its presence on its own.

There are times when such neoplasms themselves disappear with time. Moreover, when they are identified, they will not carry a danger to the unborn child.

Causes and symptoms

There are few reasons for blocking the glands of this channel. Moreover, they occur in every third woman who is of childbearing age. This makes regular visits to the gynecologist important for early detection of pathology.

Among the most common causes are:

  • Hormonal disorders in the body. In this case, cervical canal dysplasia occurs, because of which endometrial cells begin to grow very quickly,
  • Improper tissue healing in the postoperative period leads to the appearance of a cystic mass,
  • The presence of an inflammatory process, as well as infection, localized in the ovary or cervix.

In total, such pathologies can be single, with the development of only one cyst and multiple, when there are a large number of them. Often, after the detection of such anomalies, surgical or drug treatment is not required. The fact is that in most cases, cystic formations do not pose a threat to life, and also do not cause a woman any discomfort. But in the case of intensive growth and achievement of large sizes, discomfort and pain appears.

With a certain location of the pathology, such manifestations as:

  • Menstrual irregularities. This manifests itself in the form of a change in the nature of the discharge,
  • The appearance of pain in the lower abdomen, as well as feelings of heaviness,
  • Inflammation of the appendages, which will be manifested by aching pain,
  • The feeling of having a foreign body located in the vagina.

The most common complaint that comes to doctors is a change in the menstrual cycle. In addition, there are cases of the appearance of spotting, not during menstruation. They often appear after intercourse.

But the general symptomatology of the disease is very implicit, which does not allow you to independently identify it.

Watch the video: Nabothian Cysts (January 2020).