Symptoms, causes and treatment of bartholinitis

Bartholinitis

Bartholinitis on the right side
ICD-10N 75.0 75.0
ICD-10-KMN75.0
ICD-9616.2 616.2
ICD-9-KM616.2
MedlinePlus001489

Bartholinitis - inflammation of the large gland of the vestibule. It is caused more often by gonococci, staphylococci, less often streptococci, Escherichia coli, Trichomonas and other microorganisms, usually penetrating the excretory duct of the gland from infected secretions of the vagina or urethra.

With bartholinitis, the skin of the labia minora blushes around the opening of the bartholin gland. On palpation, a thickened excretory duct of the gland is found, which, when felt, causes pain. During the disease, the excretory duct of the gland becomes clogged due to its edema and thickening of the secret, which favors the rapid spread of the inflammatory process to the gland tissue and the occurrence of bartholinitis directly.

A bit of anatomy

The vestibule of the vagina is reliably protected by the labia minora, which are nothing more than skin folds, but so delicate that they look like a mucous membrane. Outside, the labia minora cover the labia majora, which are connected from above and below by adhesions (front and back).

In large shameless lips there is adipose tissue and a lot of sweat and sebaceous glands, the lips themselves are intensely covered with hair (secondary sexual characteristic). But, in addition to the bartholin glands localized in the depths of the large shameless lips (they have a round shape and no more than 1 cm in size).

The duct of the glands (they are also called the large glands of the vestibule) is discharged at the entrance to the vagina, in the place where the hymen is located. Since there are 2 large and small shameless lips, respectively, there are also 2 large glands of the vestibule.

The main task of the Bartholin glands is to develop a secret that maintains the vaginal mucosa in a wet state and produces lubricant during sexual arousal to facilitate the introduction of the penis.

Why does bartholinitis occur?

The development of bartholinitis is due to infectious causes, that is, the direct entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the bartholin gland.

  • Often the causative agents of the disease are infections that spread sexually. Most often these are gonococci and Trichomonas, less often chlamydia.
  • But often bartholinitis causes nonspecific microorganisms from the category of pyogenic flora (streptococci, staphylococci and Escherichia coli).
  • The fungal nature of the inflammatory process (Candida mushrooms) is not excluded.

But when diagnosing a disease, it is often not one, but several infectious agents that are released, that is, bartholinitis arose as a result of an attack of the association of microorganisms. However, not all women suffering from gonorrhea, or, for example, trichomoniasis, get bartholinitis. To do this, you need the influence of provoking factors:

  • weakening of the body's defenses (antibiotic treatment, hypothermia, chronic stress, vitamin deficiency),
  • the presence of chronic foci of infection (chronic tonsillitis or caries can serve as a starting point in the development of the disease - pathogenic microorganisms reach the Bartholin gland by the hematogenous route),
  • menstruation or the end of the second phase of the cycle,
  • microtrauma in the area of ​​the vestibule of the vagina and / or labia (for example, during depilation),
  • wearing narrow and tight underwear (compresses the excretory duct of the gland, due to which the secret concentrates in the gland cavity and becomes infected),
  • neglect of the rules of intimate hygiene,
  • promiscuous sexual intercourse (increases the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections),
  • gynecological intrauterine intervention or surgery on the urinary tract in violation of the rules of asepsis,
  • inflammation of the urethra or vagina (urethritis, vaginitis), when the infection easily penetrates the excretory duct of the gland.

From personal experience: By the nature of my work, I often have to deal with this unpleasant sore. The diagnosis of bartholinitis can easily be made only by the way a woman entered the office. Legs "in rashesperku", duck's gait, a grimace of pain on his face. It is clear that it is very painful, not that moving around, but even lying down. Of course, all patients go straight to gynecology to open the abscess. I would like to ask, and at the same time, to warn all women: “Why endure the pain? What to hope for? ” Bartholinitis will not resolve by itself, and if you try home self-medication it will only “mature” faster and in any case you will have to go to the doctor. Therefore, at the slightest discomfort in such a tender intimate place, you should immediately run to the reception. And further. Not a single woman asked for an ambulance with acute bartholinitis due to the delicacy of the situation, although it is possible and necessary to call an ambulance, especially with severe symptoms of intoxication and the inability to move.

As already reported, tight underwear predisposes to the onset of the disease. Now there are more and more fans of thongs, especially among young women and young girls. Refuse this “beauty”, because in addition to mechanical inconvenience, wearing strings provokes the development of the disease.

  • Firstly, they are too narrow and constrict the external genital organs.
  • Secondly, they are sewn from synthetic materials that prevent the skin from “breathing”.

Canaliculitis

Inflammation of the bartholin gland always begins with canaliculitis, that is, with suppuration of the excretory duct of the gland. Redness of the skin above the focus of inflammation and its swelling is noted. At this stage, many patients take bartholinitis for a pimple and try to squeeze it out. At the same time, one or two drops of pus are released from the excretory duct of the gland, which are necessary for the tank. research. After some time, the duct becomes clogged (pus is a substance that tends to thicken and form a crust), as a result of which pus accumulates inside the bartholin gland, it stretches and a so-called “bump” forms, located between the lower and middle third of the big shameless lip. On the tumor-like formation, hyperemia is noted, and the skin is easily shifted. Since the false abscess forms a protrusion of the big shameless lip, the entrance to the vagina is closed. Patients experience pain while walking, running or coitus, burning in the perineum. The general condition suffers slightly, the temperature does not rise above subfebrile numbers.

True abscess

When pathogenic microorganisms are introduced into the tissue of the gland, as well as into the fiber that surrounds it, pyogenic (purulent) fusion of the gland parenchyma occurs with the formation of a capsule in which pus is localized. Both the labia minora and the labia swell, and on the uninfected side, they also become red and sharply painful when walking, at rest, and when touched. The pain is so intense that the patient cannot walk. A significant increase in body temperature (above 38.5 degrees) is noted, signs of intoxication appear (weakness, chills, dyspeptic disorders). The pain is persistent and pulsating in nature. On examination, hyperemia of the labia and swelling are determined, the skin above the abscess is hot to the touch, does not move, and palpation reveals fluctuation (free movement of liquid contents in the focus of inflammation). In some cases, inguinal lymph nodes increase.

Chronic Bartholinitis

If you do not treat the acute process in a timely manner, it will be converted into a chronic form. In this case, the disease often recurs, and relapses are characterized by minor inflammation and pain. On palpation, the iron is somewhat densified and sensitive. Chronic bartholinitis causes discomfort during intimacy. The longer the disease exists, the greater the chances of the formation of a Bartholin gland cyst as a result of the accumulation of liquid contents in it.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of the disease is quite simple. The diagnosis of bartholinitis can be made already at the first visit of the patient to the doctor. The clinical minimum of the examination includes: OAK, OAM, a smear on the vaginal microflora (see increased leukocytes in the smear), blood from a vein for HIV infection and syphilis. Bacteriological culture of either purulent discharge from the duct of the gland or discharge from the vagina is mandatory to determine the infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics. Of the additional research methods, PCR smear is prescribed to detect genital infections (chlamydia, genital herpes, trichomoniasis, human papilloma virus).

Antibiotics

For this purpose, antibiotics are prescribed for a duration of 7, a maximum of 10 days. Antibiotic treatment is prescribed together with drugs of the imidazole group, which are effective against anaerobes (metronidazole, tinidazole). In parallel, local therapy is also carried out. I consider the cold treatment offered by many sites to be inappropriate. Since the ice applied to the site of inflammation will undoubtedly reduce pain due to the deterioration of the blood supply to the inflammatory site, but thereby reduce antibiotic intake.

Local treatment with ointments

Local therapy includes applications with medicinal ointments:

  • levomekol,
  • Vishnevsky ointment,
  • ichthyol.

Ointments with bartholinitis have a warming property, that is, they improve microcirculation and lead to one of two options: either the focus of inflammation resolves, or "comes to condition", that is, until maturation (the appearance of fluctuations).

Folk remedies

Also in the local conservative treatment of bartholinitis, folk remedies can be used. Of the folk methods, warm sedentary baths with decoctions of medicinal plants are prescribed:

Instead of infusions of herbs, you can use a weak solution of potassium permanganate or furatsillina.

Physiotherapy - after the acute phase subsides, therapy is continued with physiotherapeutic methods (UFO, UHF).

Surgical treatment

In the case of the formation of an abscess of the Bartholin gland, surgery is inevitable. The operation is also performed for chronic bartholinitis (Bartholin's cyst). If an abscess of the Bartholin gland has formed, it is urgently opened (the golden rule of surgeons: “where there is pus, open there”) under local or general anesthesia. The wound is intensively washed first with hydrogen peroxide, then with an aqueous solution of chlorhexidine or furatsillina. A gauze turunda is inserted into the postoperative opening for a period of 5 to 6 days, that is, until the discharge from the wound becomes "clean" (without pus admixture).

Dressings are carried out daily, with the treatment of wounds with antiseptics. In parallel, after opening the bartholinitis, antibacterial drugs of various groups are prescribed:

  • macrolides (azithromycin),
  • cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefuroxime),
  • fluoroquinolones (ciprolet)
  • penicillins (amoxiclav).

Together with antibiotics, Trichopolum is prescribed for a period of 7 days.

In chronic bartholinitis and the formation of a cyst, it is removed as planned in a “cold” period, that is, without signs of inflammation. To do this, use 2 methods. Either cysts are marsupalized, or glands are removed (extirpated).

During marsupalization, the cyst is opened by a linear incision, and its edges are sutured to the wound edges of the skin, thereby forming a false opening of the excretory duct. A catheter is inserted into the wound so that the contents of the cyst flow out, and by the end of the second month it narrows and the tube is removed.

During extirpation, the inner surface of the small shameless lip is opened, the gland is husked in a sharp way (with a scalpel) and removed, the wound is sutured.

In the case of diagnosing acute bartholinitis (false or true abscess) during pregnancy, it is opened immediately. And when a Bartholin gland brush is detected, its removal is postponed to the postpartum period. Acute bartholinitis during gestation is dangerous spontaneous abortion, intrauterine infection of the fetus and premature birth.

Case study: I had a patient about 30 years old, who with an enviable regularity, 2 times a year was admitted with a relapse of the disease. Moreover, in a calm time, she did not have a cyst or any consolidation of the bartholin gland, but bartholinitis recurred stably every 6 months. After the first opening of the abscess and successful antibacterial treatment, the woman with recovery was discharged home. But she did it again, six months later. After the second time the abscess was opened, the recovery patient was sent to be examined for genital infections. No infections were detected. After the third admission to the gynecological department, this woman, that is, her recurrent bartholinitis made me think. After another successful anti-inflammatory treatment, I referred her to an immunologist. An immunologist, having prescribed tests, revealed serious immune disorders and prescribed appropriate treatment. The treatment was beneficial for the patient and she did not deal with relapses of the disease anymore.

General information

Bartholinitis is a unilateral, less commonly bilateral infectious inflammation of the paired Bartholin (large vestibular) gland located in the vestibule region and named for Danish anatomist Caspar Bartolin, who described it in the 17th century. This is a common disease in gynecology, which affects women of reproductive age, the peak incidence is 20-30 years, the frequency of occurrence is 15%. In girls, the disease is not registered, in women in postmenopausal women it is extremely rare, since in children the iron is not sufficiently developed, and in the elderly it undergoes involutive changes. Bilateral forms are characteristic of highly contagious infections (for example, gonorrhea, less often trichomoniasis) or develop against a background of a significant decrease in immune activity.

Bartholinitis is a consequence of damage to gland tissues by specific (gonococcus, trichomonas, pathogenic chlamydia, ureaplasma) and non-specific (E. coli, streptococci, staphylococci, peptococci, bacteroid, clostridia) infectious agents. Infection can penetrate into the gland both exogenously (externally) and endogenously (spread of pathogens present in the body). Infection with specific microorganisms most often comes from external sources, while autoinfection is more characteristic for damage by non-specific bacteria.

  • Endogenous infection. In most cases, it occurs through sexual contact. Other sources of infection are foreign personal items, dirty hands, poorly crafted medical equipment. Thus, risk factors for external infection include sexual contact with an infected partner, neglect of personal hygiene. Exogenously, not only specific (sexually transmitted) infections can be transmitted, but also conditionally pathogenic, for example, if a sexual partner has a non-specific urogenital infection.
  • Endogenous infection. The main sources of endogenous infection are the foci of infection in the higher parts of the genital tract (bacterial vaginosis, colpitis, cervicitis), the urinary system (cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis), the intestines (enterocolitis).

Predisposing conditions for the development of non-specific bartholinitis are injuries and operations on the external genital organs, wearing tight underwear, and immune disorders. Factors that increase the likelihood of a nonspecific infection include endocrine-metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, ovarian and thyroid pathologies), hypovitaminosis, taking antibiotics, corticosteroids, cytostatics, overwork, stress, frequent changes of even healthy sexual partners (contributes to the development of bacterial vaginosis), frequent alcohol abuse, intense smoking. Severe immunodeficiency can lead to hematogenous infection, the sources of which are cholecystitis, caries, chronic ENT infections (tonsillitis, sinusitis).

Bartholin glands are located in the thickness of the lower third of the labia majora, their ducts open on the inside of the labia minora. The body produces mucus, which moisturizes the vestibule of the vagina under the influence of estrogen. With age, when the level of female sex hormones in the blood decreases significantly, the Bartholin glands lose activity, and with it the susceptibility to the development of inflammation. If an infectious agent enters the mouth of the excretory duct, inflammation of its mucous membranes first develops - canalicular bartholinitis (canaliculitis). When the infection spreads deeper, the inflammatory process captures the smaller ducts and parenchymal tissue of the organ, where inflammatory infiltrates occur. At any of these stages, inflammation may resolve under the influence of treatment, or less often, spontaneously.

Further progression of bartholinitis leads to purulent complications. As a result of pathological changes associated with the inflammatory process (edema, adhesion of the canal walls, its obstruction by desquamated epithelial cells), obstruction of the excretory duct with accumulation of purulent exudate in its cavity occurs - a false abscess or empyema of the gland forms. A rarer complication is a true abscess, characterized by purulent resorption of glandular tissue with the formation of a restrictive pyogenic membrane around the focus.

Classification

By the type of inflammation, serous and purulent bartholinitis is secreted. Serous inflammation develops as a result of infection with non-heterogeneous (chlamydia, Trichomonas, Escherichia coli) microorganisms, it is easier. Purulent inflammation is the result of infection with pyogenic (staphilo, strepto, gonococcus, proteome) bacteria and quickly leads to complications. Since inflammation is accompanied by an uncontrolled growth of all conditionally pathogenic microflora, serous bartholinitis often passes into purulent over time. According to the clinical course, three forms of bartholinitis are distinguished:

  • Sharp. It is usually observed during the manifestation of the disease, characterized by the most pronounced symptoms, the best response to treatment, resolution within three to four weeks.
  • Chronic (recurrent). Recurrent bartholinitis occurs for a long time (often for years), almost asymptomatic phases of remission alternate with phases of exacerbation. The chronic form is difficult to conservative treatment.

Symptoms of bartholinitis

The first symptoms are redness of the labia minora in the outlet area of ​​the duct of the gland with the formation of a small (grain to pea-sized) nodule or cord, swelling of the mucous membrane, a sensation of mild burning sensation. Later, a mildly painful or painless swelling of the lower third of the labia majora, minor serous or purulent discharge, an increase in body temperature to 37-37.5 ° C. Sometimes there is local itching, a slight general malaise, slight discomfort when walking.

The development of purulent forms of the disease is accompanied by a rapid increase in the formation in the thickness of the labia, intense, often unbearable pulsating local pain (including at rest), giving to the thigh, difficulty walking, bouts of fever, general condition deterioration - weakness, depression, and loss of appetite. Especially pronounced symptoms are characteristic of a true abscess of the Bartholin gland. Recurrent bartholinitis in the remission phase is asymptomatic or with indefinite discomfort in the vulva, dyspareunia. Menstruation, intense sex life, hypothermia, intercurrent disease can provoke an exacerbation. In the period of exacerbation, the symptoms correspond to acute bartholinitis.

Complications

The most common complication of bartholinitis is abscesses that significantly impair the quality of life, which, when resolved, can lead to deformation of the labia, the formation of vaginal fistulas, and a septic state. Another common complication, usually associated with recurrent bartholinitis, is associated with the formation of a retention cyst of the Bartholin gland, which tends to frequent suppuration with the development of pseudo-abscess. Untreated bartholinitis in pregnant women complicates the course of natural (vaginal) labor, can be a source of obstetric sepsis, cause fetal perinatal infections and neonatal infection of the newborn.

Bartholinitis treatment

Uncomplicated acute forms of the disease are successfully cured by conservative methods - the use of antibiotics inside, local treatments and physiotherapy. The main treatment for abscesses is surgery. With frequent exacerbations of chronic bartholinitis associated with a retenson cyst, surgical treatment (marsupialization, removal of the cyst) is also indicated.

  • Drug treatment. Empirical therapy of bartholinitis includes broad-spectrum antibiotics - inhibitor-protected penicillins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides. Locally treated with antiseptics. After verification of the pathogen, antibacterial agents are prescribed depending on the results of culture analysis and PCR. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to relieve pain, heat.
  • Physiotherapy. It is prescribed to prevent relapse after the acute phase of inflammation subsides, during the period of remission of chronic bartholinitis. In acute inflammations, UV, UHF, and SMT are performed on the perineum, in chronic cases, treatment is carried out with an infrared laser, mud applications, paraffin, and ozokerite.

Prognosis and prevention

The prognosis for acute bartholinitis is favorable, most cases end with a complete cure, however, in about a quarter of patients the disease goes into a relapse form, usually associated with the formation of a cyst. Prevention includes observing personal hygiene rules, eliminating accidental unprotected sexual intercourse, wearing free underwear from natural tissue, timely detection and treatment of vaginal dysbiosis, inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract and intestines, chronic infections of the oral cavity, ENT organs, pathologies of the endocrine system. A healthy lifestyle helps to minimize the likelihood of nonspecific bartholinitis (compliance with the regime of work and rest, physical activity, eating balanced food, giving up bad habits).

General information

Bartholin glands are located in the thickness of the labia majora and produce a mucous, protein-rich secret. The secret of the Bartholin glands maintains constant moisture in the vagina.

During sexual arousal, secretion is activated, a large amount of mucus facilitates the penetration of the penis into the vagina.

The secret of the Bartholin gland plays an important role during childbirth: it contributes to the stretching of the vagina and serves as a natural lubricant of the birth canal.

With insufficient secretion, the vagina dries up, it is manifested by itching and burning in the perineum, sexual intercourse becomes unpleasant and painful.

After menopause, the activity of the Bartholin glands is reduced against the background of a natural decrease in the level of estrogen.

The code for bartholinitis according to ICD-10 is N75.

Causes of occurrence

What makes bartholinitis? The disease develops with the penetration of pathogens into the gland. More often the inflammatory process is caused by trichomonads, gonococci, sometimes chlamydia.

Against the background of weakened immunity, the disease can develop due to organ damage by representatives of the so-called pyogenic microflora (E. coli, streptococci and staphylococci) There are cases of viral and fungal infections.

The presence of a potential pathogen in the body does not mean inevitable inflammation, pathology can develop in the presence of additional provoking factors:

  • immunodeficiency states
  • microtrauma in the genital area,
  • neglect of intimate hygiene
  • promiscuous sex
  • the presence of chronic inflammatory processes,
  • inflammatory processes in the vagina or urethra,
  • the second phase of the menstrual cycle and menstruation,
  • intrauterine manipulations with violation of aseptic requirements,
  • tight underwear.

Bartholin gland inflammation - bartholinitis in women, its causes, symptoms and treatment are discussed in this video:

Forms and symptoms of the disease

According to the features of the course of Bartholinite may be acute or chronic.

With a false abscess pus accumulates inside the gland; in true Bartholinitis, tissues adjacent to the organ are involved in the purulent inflammatory process.

The chronic form of the pathology develops in the absence or inadequacy of the treatment of the acute process or the relief of the condition after the spontaneous opening of the abscess. Over time, a Bartholin gland cyst forms.

Bartholin cyst gland:

Acute canaliculitis

In the first stage of the disease, the inflammatory process affects the duct of the gland, canaliculitis develops. Over the focus of inflammation, swelling and redness of the skin form.

Often, the first manifestations of bartholinitis are mistaken for women like white eel and squeezed out. Several drops of pus are secreted from the duct of the affected gland.

Over time, the pus thickens, clogs the duct and accumulates in the gland itself, forming a false abscess. Affected gland is greatly increased in size, the labia protrudes toward the vestibule and blocks the entrance to the vagina.

Over the compacted focus of inflammation, redness, swelling is visible, the skin above it easily moves. Symptoms of intoxication are mild, possibly a slight increase in temperature.

A sore gland hurts a woman when walking and during intercourse, a burning sensation is felt in the perineum. At rest, the pain subsides.

The necessary tests for planning pregnancy are listed in this article.

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Chronic course of the disease

With insufficient treatment or its absence (what happens after spontaneous opening of the abscess), the disease becomes chronic.

The manifestations of inflammation subside, the affected gland becomes denser, pain weakens. The disease is periodically exacerbated.

With prolonged chronic inflammation a cyst forms inside the affected gland - painless tumor-like neoplasm filled with fluid.

Sex, pregnancy and childbirth with inflammation

Inflammatory processes in the Bartholin gland do not affect the ability to conceive and do not always affect the course of pregnancy.

In the acute stage of the disease intimate contacts are very difficult or even impossible, since any contact with the affected labia causes excruciating pain.

Chronic bartholinitis causes less anxiety and is not considered by patients as a serious hindrance to sexual activity. Discomfort during intercourse is perceived as tolerable.

Identified Bartholin gland cysts during pregnancy are not subject to treatment, surgery is delayed until the baby is born.

Which doctor to contact

The symptoms of many female diseases are very similar. Any discomfort in the genital area, especially persistent - reason to be vigilant and consult a gynecologist.

Self-medication for purulent inflammation in the intimate area is unacceptable. Bartholinitis does not spontaneously pass, on the contrary, purulent inflammation progresses rapidly.

Many patients ignore the pain until it becomes unbearable, and almost never cause an ambulance.

Possible complications and consequences

What is dangerous bartholinite? Without timely treatment, suppuration in the run-up to the vagina can lead to the spread of infection to other organs of the reproductive system.

When opening the abscess, relief comes out, but the disease without treatment becomes chronic, sometimes a fistula forms at the site of the abscess breakthrough.

Acute bartholinitis may pose a danger to the fetus during pregnancy. Probable intrauterine infection before the 22nd week of pregnancy can provoke a fading pregnancy, a miscarriage.

With the development of the disease in the third trimester of pregnancy the risk of preterm birth increases. During delivery, the infectious agent can get into the baby’s eyes or lungs, and the umbilical wound is also at risk of infection.

Chronic malosymptomatic form of the disease is also far from harmless. Any chronic inflammatory process is a time bomb. Under certain circumstances, it can lead to complications from any physiological system.

Conservative therapy

The earlier the pathology is detected, the faster, easier and more effective the treatment. If the patient has bartholinitis in the initial stage, hospitalization is not required, treatment can be carried out at homefulfilling the appointment of a doctor.

How to cure bartholinitis forever? To relieve pain it is recommended to apply an ice bubble to the affected areaHowever, some gynecologists object to this practice.

With bartholinitis a course of antibiotic treatment is prescribed for 7-10 days, additionally - preparations of the imidazole group. It helps metronidazole with inflammation.

Local treatment is carried out, Vishnevsky ointment, Levomekol or Ichthyol ointment is applied to the lesion site.

These drugs improve blood microcirculation: the abscess either resolves or matures.

Recommended Applications with hypertonic salt solution, Miramistin or Chlorhexidine. Such applications have an antiseptic effect, eliminate puffiness.

Bartholin Gland Cyst Treatment

If a disease is detected in the cyst stage, two treatment options are possible: marsupialization of the cyst or extirpation of the affected gland.

Marsupialization refers to the opening of a cyst and the surgical formation of a new excretory duct. After opening the Bartholinitis, the surgeon stitches the edges of the capsule to the skin, fixes a drain in the opening.

The formation of a new duct occurs within 2 months after surgery. Such operations are carried out without aggravation.

In the treatment of any form of the disease, multivitamins are prescribed, after the elimination of acute symptoms - a course of physiotherapy.

During treatment, it is recommended to observe sexual rest, wear comfortable underwear made from natural fibers, and carefully observe the rules of intimate hygiene.

The symptoms and treatment of ureaplasma in women can be found in this publication.

The causes and treatment of cystitis in women are discussed in detail here.

With timely access to a doctor, the disease is completely cured.Sometimes you may need the help of other specialized specialists (immunologist).

What is bartholinitis?

Bartholinitis is a disease characterized by the development of the inflammatory process in the Bartholin gland. Most often, the pathology is one-sided - that is, only one of the paired glands suffers.

At the first stage of the disease, various violations of the patency of the ductal duct of the gland occur, as a result, it gradually becomes blocked, the secretions flow out, and the discharge begins to accumulate directly in the gland. With the accumulation of mucus, compaction in the thickness of the labia begins to be felt. A closed vessel becomes an ideal platform for the development of infection, which eventually goes on to the gland itself, and this is how Bartholinitis occurs.

Bartholinitis, depending on the nature of the course, manifests itself in the following forms:

  • acute bartholinitis,
  • chronic bartholinitis,
  • false abscess (primary or secondary - when a previously formed cyst is suppurating),
  • true abscess.

Each of the listed varieties / stages of the disease has its own symptoms, characteristic features, and, accordingly, requires specific treatment.

Why bartholinitis occurs: the main reasons

The culprits of the occurrence of the disease are bacteria such as staphylococcus, Escherichia coli, Trichomonas, streptococci, Candida, etc. Most often, Bartholinitis begins as a result of the entry of pathogens into the Bartholin gland as a result of human infection with sexually transmitted diseases: chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis.

There are a number of factors that significantly increase the risk of bartholinitis:

  • Violation of personal hygiene.
  • All kinds of local microtraumas (excellent entry gates for infection): scratching, scuffing, diaper rash.
  • The presence in the body of chronic foci of neglected infections (pyelonephritis, caries) - in this case, the pathogens enter the Bartholin gland with a current of lymph or blood.
  • In some cases, operations affecting the urogenital area, with non-compliance with sanitary standards during their implementation or in violation of the prescribed rules in the postoperative period.
  • Frequent change of sexual partners, greatly increasing the risk of contracting diseases that are sexually transmitted.
  • Wearing too tight linen - as a result, the normal outflow of secretion is disrupted, as a result of which it stagnates, thus creating ideal conditions for the development of infection.
  • A general decrease in immunity, vitamin deficiency, hypothermia - all this weakens the body's defenses, as a result, pathogens of infections, without encountering significant barriers to the path, easily enter both the excretory duct of the gland and the gland itself.

Is bartholinitis a cause of infertility?

Many are concerned about the question of whether bartholinitis can cause infertility. The disease itself is not an obstacle to conception. But the chronic pathological process in the vagina, which causes regular inflammation of the Bartholin gland, is often the true reason for not being able to become pregnant.

What is the danger of bartholinitis during pregnancy?

Bartholinitis and its causes during pregnancy always have an adverse effect on the development of the fetus. And the protective mechanisms provided by nature, unfortunately, are not able to prevent the transmission of infection to the fetus by the hematogenous route - that is, through the blood.

If the cause of Bartholinitis is Trichomonas or gonococcus, the effect on the fetus of these infections can cause disturbances in the development of various organs and systems of the fetus.

If a woman becomes ill with Bartholinitis between conception and the twenty-second week of pregnancy, the probability of a miscarriage or death of the fetus is high. In cases where the future mother is diagnosed with this disease in the last periods, the risk of premature birth and infection of the child during the passage of the birth canal significantly increases - the eyes, umbilical ring, lungs are affected.

Prevention

Among the key measures for the prevention of purulent processes in the genitals are regular visit to the gynecologist for the timely detection and treatment of diseases that increase the risk of developing bartholinitis.

At the slightest suspicion of a disease of the reproductive system, you need to see a doctor.

The risk of infection is markedly reduced subject to hygiene, the use of barrier contraceptives and a monogamous lifestyle.

An important condition for maintaining women's and general health is strengthening immunity.

Bartholinitis - a potentially dangerous disease, but treatable. The main thing is to responsibly and carefully treat your health.

Watch the video: Alyaa Gad - Bartholin Gland Cyst (January 2020).