Parasitic diseases in humans are the most common in medicine, because according to research by the World Health Organization (WHO) about 90% of the world's population suffers from them.
Helminths are parasitic worms, moreover, they are contained in the internal organs of not only humans, but also animals, and the analysis of helminth eggs is a very important procedure in combating them.
About what tests are done on worms and how to take them, you should find out from a therapist or a doctor specializing in parasitic diseases. You can also do this by reading this article.
The need for testing for eggplant and their types
Probably, there are no people who have reached a mature age and, at the same time, have never undergone a procedure for stool testing. It is designed to further detect the presence or absence of worms in the body.
Typically, tests of this type are taken, entering a higher educational institution, taking a job, filling out a sanitary book, or for later attending sporting swimming activities in the pool.
Depending on what the reason for the appointment is, tests on the egg list are conditionally classified into:
- prophylactic. This type of analysis is carried out with the aim of timely detecting the presence of worms, even if a person has no symptoms that indicate the disease. This procedure is performed, both on the patient’s own initiative, and in the case of the necessary medical examination,
- barrier. Their main task is the prevention of helminth diseases among a large number of people. Usually, this type of egg test is necessary to obtain a certificate indicating the absence of a disease by helminths for subsequent admission to an educational institution or for entry to the sports section,
- in connection with the appointment of a doctor. The procedure for the analysis in this case is carried out due to the patient's complaints about weight loss or prolonged itching in the anus and other symptoms. In addition to assigning an egg test, the patient's blood is examined for the presence of antibodies. This type of analysis is more thorough. In case of doubts about the reliability of the result of the analysis on helminths, a repeated examination may be scheduled.
The causes of many diseases, from simple allergies to cancer, may be the presence of ascaris in the body.
If allergies are suspected, a hemotest may be prescribed. And if a small amount of ascaris does not seriously affect human health, then the essential content in the human body of worms of this species, to a large extent, depletes it.
It causes an increase or, conversely, a decrease in appetite, entails a weakening of the immune system, causes constipation or diarrhea, as well as painful sensations in the navel.
Infection with pinworms can occur with itching in humans in the genital area, as well as the anus.
This is not all the reasons why it is necessary to carry out the delivery of the analysis for worms in time. The necessary study of feces and blood will be able to identify the reasons for which the patient had these or other diseases, or just unpleasant feelings.
Timely visits to the doctor and testing, indicating the presence or absence of worms in the body, can prevent the development of pathology from the acute to the chronic phase.
To detect pinworms in the human body, you need to go through a fairly simple procedure. It consists in taking scrapings on enterobiosis. It can be carried out only in a medical institution.
This type of analysis is not time consuming. Besides, it is painless. A smear test is taken from a testicular with a cotton swab, the end of which is moistened with glycerin.
Then the stick with the smear already taken for analysis is put into a test tube prepared for this. This procedure is usually carried out in the morning. If it is carried out in relation to children, then they are first monitored by their parents so that they do not accept water procedures before submitting the necessary materials for analysis.
Further examination under a smear microscope can show the presence or absence of pathogens of the disease - helminths, their eggs or larvae. The period during which the test results are prepared is 6 days.
The analysis of feces in adults and children for the presence of a disease such as enterobiasis is carried out if there are the following reasons:
- there is a suspicion of helminthiasis,
- labor activity of citizens is connected with their contact or direct contact with animals (veterinarians, dog handlers),
- presence of pets in the house.
This analysis allows to determine up to 50% of pinworms in the human body. However, in order to obtain more detailed data on the presence of enterobiosis, the analysis is done 2-3 times.
The interval between the delivery of material for analysis should be several days. Each analysis is valid for 10 days, therefore, the following analysis can be taken 10 days after the first test.
Analysis of feces on helminth eggs
Identify the basic conditions that must be followed when passing the analysis on helminths:
- The container for the material must be prepared in advance. This can be as a sterile jar, sold in pharmacies, and the usual household glass container. Some mommies scoop up a pot in front of their children’s feces, but this is not necessary. In order to seal the container, it is necessary to have screw caps on hand. However, for convenient use, pharmacy items offer special jars with spoons inside. The handing over of paper or matchboxes with material for analysis is not reasonable,
- If the subject of the analysis is a child, it is necessary to control its emptying, in other words, to prepare for the analysis. Do not perform enema procedures. In addition, laxatives should be discarded for some time.
- It is necessary to carry out the collection of analyzes, excluding falling into the necessary for passing material urine,
- It is forbidden to collect materialsnot intended for this (cardboard, polyethylene). It is necessary to take a container that strictly corresponds to the description of the doctor for the purposes of this nature,
- In case, for some reason, the feces were collected in the evening, and the visit to the doctor will be carried out in the morning the next day, it is necessary to put the material in a refrigerator at a temperature not higher than +5 degrees Celsius. It should be noted that the longer the material for analysis is stored in the refrigerating chamber, the shorter the period for performing laboratory analysis actions remains with the doctor. In addition, the material for analysis can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 8 hours.
- Amount of material It involves taking it in the amount of approximately two teaspoons, that is, about 5-10 g.
It should be remembered that the observance of the conditions for conducting any kind of research concerns not only the personnel of medical workers, but also those interested in examining patients.
Usually, this type of analysis is accompanied by filling out a form in the form of 219 / y, the design of which is necessary and involves the input of such data as:
- Name of the patient
- his age
- number of medical institution and medical card.
This form must be attached to the analysis materials. Both items are delivered to the laboratory. Directly, a laboratory technician examining the feces and determining the presence of protozoa or their eggs in it, makes a corresponding entry in the form (a negative entry indicates the absence of worms, a positive one indicates the presence). The general procedure provides for a mandatory entry in the form of how many times the feces were taken for analysis.
Analysis of feces for opisthorchiasis, ascariasis, trichinosis
Stool tests can also be prescribed for suspected diseases involving helminths such as:
To detect ascaris, it is most prudent to have a blood test for antibodies. For a blood test, you should refrain from eating for four hours before the material for analysis will be handed over.
The most effective for the detection of opisthorchiasis and trichinosis is a blood test for IgG antibodies. As a rule, the most reliable result of a blood test for specific antibodies is obtained in the case of blood sampling at 6 or 8 weeks of opisthorchosis.
Recommended frequency of analysis
It should be understood that if doctors recommend taking all tests once a year for prophylaxis, then this is the minimum number of times each person needs to take tests, including stool tests for the egg-list.
Due to the fact that 90% of people in the entire population of the Earth are more or less infected with helminths, it is more prudent to get tested at least 2 times a year.
However, if, for some reason, an adult does not feel that there is a sufficient need for testing at a specified frequency, then the child needs to take the material 2 times a year.
Its fragile body is most susceptible to outside influence.
The results of the analysis and treatment process
Confirmation of the diagnosis of the disease can also occur by drawing blood from a vein. Biochemical analysis allows to establish the presence of antibodies to helminths, that is, to determine the degree of intoxication and the general condition of the body.
The treatment process should be supervised by specialists to study competently all changes in the body during the treatment with prescribed medicines. When the material is delivered to the laboratory, you can also ask the medical officer about the date and effect of the issued certificate.
If parasitic invasions were detected, and a positive result of the helminth test indicates, then the first step is to immediately contact a general practitioner or doctor specializing in parasitic diseases and provide all the necessary results of the analysis.
The doctor may prescribe an additional examination with the participation of all family members who applied for an accurate diagnosis. The next step, the doctor, as a rule, on the basis of the results of the analysis should prescribe a special wellness course, during which the patient should take a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drugs for humans.
Effective egg test and key recommendations
Analysis of feces for the presence of helminth eggs is the most effective method for detecting parasites in the human body. This type of analysis is suitable for the detection of helminthic invasions and the extent to which they affect both the child’s body and the body of an adult.
You should take care of your health, including, in time, passing all the necessary tests for eggplot.
The development of any disease can be prevented by first taking appropriate preventive measures.
Indications for diagnosis
It is recommended to take the analysis at least once a year. The most relevant study is for people with an increased risk of helminth infections:
- permanent residence in a closed collective (children's preschool and school institutions, boarding schools, barracks, etc.),
- insufficient compliance with the rules of hygiene or the impossibility of their observance (field work),
- the use of river fish, meat, past insufficient heat treatment,
- constant contact with farm animals (owners of private farms, villagers),
- breeding dogs and work with them.
The stool analysis is included in the list of standard examinations when obtaining a medical certificate for visiting children's preschool, school and other institutions, and is also appointed when passing medical examinations:
- for employment,
- in the framework of the periodic medical center of specialists working in the fields of health, education, catering and commerce and some others.
It is recommended to pass the analysis when signs of helminthiases appear:
- weight loss for no apparent reason
- constant weakness, shortness of breath,
- reduced performance
- bad sleep
- pain in the joints and muscles
- heaviness in the right hypochondrium,
- feeling of bitterness in the mouth
- intermittent abdominal pain, especially in the navel,
- stool disorders - diarrhea or constipation
- pale skin and mucous membranes,
- allergic phenomena: dermatitis, itchy skin, acne,
- itching in the anus.
What helminth infections can be diagnosed in the study of feces
The most common are 3 groups of parasites, which can be found in the study of feces:
- roundworms (nematodes): roundworms, whipworms, necators, pinworms, duodenal headheads,
- flukes (trematodes): schistosomes, hepatic and cat flukes,
- tapeworms (cestodes): bovine tapeworm, pork tapeworm, tapeworm wide.
Let us dwell on the diagnostic features of each helminthiasis.
- Ascariasis. Helminth eggs have a small size of 50-70 microns, an oval shape and are detected by microscopic examination of a sample of feces. However, the absence of acarid eggs in the feces does not exclude this diagnosis: they can be detected in the feces only 90 days after infection, provided that the adult females parasitize.
- Trichocephalosis. Vlasoglava eggs as small as 20–50 µm in the form of a brown barrel can be detected only by microscopic examination of feces, but not in all cases — the infection must be quite intensive. Therefore, the diagnosis is carried out several times.
- Necatorosis Helminth eggs appear in the feces 2 months after infection, have a size of 30-60 microns.
- Enterobiasis. Pinworm eggs are oval, colorless, flattened on one side, have a size of 20-60 microns. Females lay a huge number of eggs (5-15 thousand), but catch them in feces is problematic, because for laying eggs the females crawl out of the intestine to the anus. Therefore, during the examination for enterobiasis and worm eggs found in the perianal imprint, and living specimens visually visible in the feces have a greater diagnostic value than the study of feces only on the helminth eggs.
- Hookworm disease. Curved eggs are oval, colorless, transparent, 30-70 microns, have a thin smooth shell, 2-8 balls of crushing are found in fresh feces. But it is rather difficult to identify them, only during the laying of eggs by the female (up to 10 thousand), when they go outside with undigested food.
- Schistosomiasis. The eggs are oval-shaped, the cap is missing. On the side surface there is a small spike. The size of the eggs is 70-110 microns. Found in the feces after 1-3 months. after infection.
- Opisthorchiasis. Liver fluke eggs have a regular oval shape, size 70-145 microns, a smooth shell with a small lid. Flat tubercle visible on the opposite pole, in the cavity of the egg - uniform yolk cells. Found in the feces after 30-40 days after infection, the number of eggs per 1 gr. feces for setting the extent of the disease. Feline flute eggs are very small, 10-20 microns, oval, with a thin shell, more tapering to the pole, with a lid. At the opposite pole there is a spike.There is a fine-grained content.
- Teniarinhoz, tenioz. To diagnose bovine and porcine tapeworm, a study of feces on the eggs, as well as fragments of the worm's body, is carried out. The eggs are round, 20-40 microns, have 2 filamentous processes, inside - the embryo is the oncosphere. Differential diagnostics is carried out, since the eggs of two types of chains are similar to each other.
- Diphyllobothriasis. The eggs of a tapeworm are broad, 45-70 microns, oval-shaped, yellow or brown. At one pole there is a cap, on the other - a tubercle. Inside the egg is coarse-grained content.
In most cases, additional studies and diagnostic methods are prescribed to confirm the diagnosis: blood ELISA, hemoscanning, retro-romanoscopy, colonoscopy, duodenal juice examination, coproovoscopy - detection of segments and proglottids in the feces and perianal region and others.
Preparation for the study
It is not recommended to eat liver (beef, pork), mushrooms, bran, pickled foods, soda, as well as a large amount of fruits, berries and vegetables a couple of days before analysis. When treating with antibiotics, feces can be taken only one week after the completion of the drug. You should also be from any potent drugs, with the exception of essential.
You can not use laxatives, petroleum jelly, oil in order to cause defecation, as well as use sorbents. The day before you give stool should drink more water, keep an active lifestyle, make a walk at night and a circular massage of the abdomen (especially in children). You can take a warm bath. Before bowel movements do not need to take water procedures (wash).
Where to collect feces
Defecation should be done in a clean plastic container (disposable plate, plastic bag, etc.). If the feces are collected from a child, you can use a regular pot to make a bowel movement, but wash it thoroughly with hot water.
It is impossible that urine got into the feces - you need to urinate before a bowel movement.
How much does kala need
For analysis, collect the morning feces in an approximate amount of 50 grams (if the stool is liquid - not less than 5 ml). It is advisable to take samples from different parts of the feces. If creeping worms are visually visible on the surface of feces, they should be placed in a container with feces.
If defecation occurs in the evening, feces are collected and put a container, which is stored in the refrigerator until morning (see below).
To collect feces you need to prepare a clean container of glass or plastic. Also for these purposes in pharmacies special disposable containers are sold with a tight screw cap, inside which is a spoon for stool collection.
What to select cal
Collect feces should be using a conventional disposable plastic spoon, which after use should be thrown out. You should not use chips, matches, toothpicks, wooden sticks for drinks, cotton swabs - microfibers can get into the feces and make it difficult to study. Moreover, you can not use cutlery and other items reusable.
Features analysis of feces in young children
If it is necessary to collect feces from a small child up to one year old, it is impossible to take stool from a diaper, although this option is by far the easiest for mom. It is necessary to lay out the baby on a clean diaper at a time when approximately a bowel movement should occur. If the child is already crawling or walking, you should wear normal panties and monitor the appearance of signs of defecation (grunting, straining, etc.).
How much is the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm
The next day, you can get the results of the research, and with a small laboratory load - on the same day, in a couple of hours. As a rule, the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm is not prescribed by cito, with the exception of emergency cases when the patient must be urgently hospitalized in a specialized medical institution, and this study is mandatory for referral to hospital.
How much is the analysis prepared and how is it conducted in the laboratory?
If possible, the feces sample immediately enters the work or is placed in the appropriate temperature conditions before the start of research. In some cases, a preservative may be used. Sample preparation and features of the study depends on the method used.
- Macroscopic methods are used to detect mature helminths or their fragments using a magnifying glass, stereoscope. The tweezers are taken from the surface of the feces all suspicious formations on the Petri dish, examine them through a magnifying glass and under a microscope between the slides.
- Thick smear method. A thin layer of feces samples on a slide under a special hygroscopic cellophane, which is impregnated with phenol, glycerin and malachite green, is being investigated. A glass of pea-sized stool is applied to the glass, pounded with a glass rod and covered with a cellophane strip, brightened in half an hour. With this preparation, you can view 30 times more drugs.
- Sedimentation method (sedimentation). The basis is the difference in the proportion of reagents and helminth eggs, which are concentrated in the sediment. The precipitate is obtained using a centrifuge and then examined under a microscope. Modified sedimentation methods are also used with the “Real” mini-system and “PARASEP” disposable concentrators.
- Method for the study of feces using flotation solutions. The method is based on the difference in the specific weight of the helminth eggs and the flotation solution - the helminth eggs float and concentrate in the surface film. Next, the film is examined under a microscope.
The eggs of pinworms parasitizing in the intestines and tapeworms can be detected by microscopy of prints from the skin near the anus.
Before the analysis it is impossible to carry out a toilet of area of an anus, and also it is inadmissible to carry out research after the act of defecation. Optimally - in the morning immediately after waking up. To take the analysis, an adhesive tape is used, which is pressed to the anus area with a sticky side for 1-2 seconds and then glued onto the glass slide exactly. The edges of the film, protruding at the edges of the glass, cut.
Most often, the study is carried out in children, and the prints are removed by the parents - the glass and tape are issued by a nurse in a clinic or kindergarten. It is allowed to store scraping for enterobiosis for no more than 8 hours, ensuring a storage temperature of not more than 4 degrees (in the refrigerator). Examined under the microscope.
Analysis of feces for the simplest
Identification and differentiation of protozoa in feces is a difficult task. Unicellular organisms can be detected in the feces in two forms: vegetative (trophozoit) - vital, mobile and unstable to temperature changes and external influences and in the form of cysts (oocysts) - dormant forms that survive well even in adverse conditions. In the decorated protozoan feces can mainly be found in the encysted state. In order to “catch” the vegetative form, feces must be investigated even in a warm state. Vegetative forms of protozoa quickly perish in the cooled feces, are exposed to the action of proteolytic enzymes and lose the characteristic features of their structure. When the fecal masses cool down, the mobility of the protozoa decreases first and then disappears completely - and this is an important diagnostic feature.
In feces, you can find up to 20 types of the simplest of 4 groups: amoebae, flagellates, ciliate and coccidia, which inhabit the intestines (thin and thick). However, for accurate diagnosis only this study is not enough - the most significant analysis is the determination of specific antibodies in the patient's blood.
Consider the most common types of protozoa that can be found in feces.
|View||Features of parasitism||Detection in feces|
|Entamoeba histolytica (dysenteric amoeba), amoeba class||It causes amebiasis, amebic dysenteric colitis and parasitic in the large intestine. Most amoebas are not pathogenic for humans, therefore, detection of only cysts is not a basis for diagnosis. Diagnostic value is the detection of trophozoite-hematophages.||With liquid feces, it is excreted in the form of a trophozoite, and in excreted feces - in the form of cysts.|
|Lamblia intestinalis (lamblia), flagellate class||Parasitic in the small intestine (usually in the duodenal ulcer) and in the gall bladder. The vegetative form of lamblia parasitizes only in a liquid medium, in the large intestine the protozoa are encysted.||When profuse diarrhea, vegetative forms can be found in the liquid feces, and in the decorated feces only cysts can be detected.|
|Balantidium coli (balantidia), class ciliated||Ciliates parasitic in the human intestine and causes diseases of varying severity.||Found in the feces in the form of trophozoites and cysts.|
|Cryptosporidium (cryptosporidia)||Oocysts are found in feces, especially in the acute period of the disease.|
Preparation for the analysis is similar to that described above in the study of feces on helminths. In a hospital setting, whenever possible, patients take a fresh, warm stool to the laboratory, in which the highest probability of detecting the vegetative forms of pathogens is provided that the material immediately enters the work.
To obtain accurate results or confirm the diagnosis, it may be necessary to repeat the test several times in a few days (4-5). If a member of the family has a case of helminthic invasion, it is necessary to pass an analysis of feces and other studies, and all family members should receive preventive treatment. This is due to the fact that in domestic conditions, helminth infections very quickly spread. In addition, prophylactic treatment should be carried out in respect of pets - cats and dogs.
What is this analysis for?
Helminths or worms are parasitic worms whose habitat is an animal, human, or plant organism. Accordingly, helminthiasis is an infection of the body with parasitic worms. Such a disease significantly weakens the human immune system, aggravates the symptoms and the course of an existing disease, negatively affects the nervous system, as well as the development of the child.
Worms significantly reduce the effectiveness of various vaccines, increase the growth of pathogenic microflora in the intestine. They also cause significant harm to the human body with its decay products.
Strongly harm the parasites of women during pregnancy. Their presence enhances the effects of toxicosis, prevents the full absorption of vitamins, significantly weakens the body.
In men, parasites also contribute to the development of various pathological processes, but their body is two times less susceptible to infection with worms than the female.
Infection of the elderly, people with weakened immune systems and children is more serious and often leads to unpleasant and serious complications.
It is in order to detect the presence of various parasites in the human intestine, and the analysis for helminth eggs is appointed. Such a coprological study allows you to identify various types of parasites: ascaris, pinworms, chains, schistosomes, whipworm and other helminths. However, you should know that this analysis is effective only for worms that live in the intestines or stomach of a person. And rarely when the first time you can achieve the desired result, so often this analysis is carried out three times. Other parasites can be identified with a helminth blood test.
When to take an analysis
Referral to a coprological study on helminth eggs is mandatory issued by the district doctor, pediatrician or family doctor in such cases:
- when you visit the public pool or sports sections,
- when making medical books,
- before registering a child in kindergarten or school,
- when released into the hospital.
The results of the analysis are valid for ten days. At the same time, it is quite serious to take this study, as nobody can give confidence that the child is not infected with parasites.
Typically, such an examination is scheduled in a planned manner in pediatric practice. Analysis in both children and adults is necessary if there are cats or dogs in the house, work activity associated with prolonged and frequent contact with animals, suspected helminthiasis.
This test is also prescribed if the following negative symptoms are present:
- frequent disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: constipation or diarrhea,
- significant weight loss,
- increased flatulence,
- frequent occurrences of ARVI,
- frequent and painful urination,
- severe itching in the anus,
- increased fatigue.,
- allergic reactions.
Indications for such a study are problems with the cardiovascular system, liver, brain, lymph nodes or bladder.
Rules for collecting material for analysis
Material for research should be collected in a special sterile container, preferably in the morning, immediately after waking up. Certain inconveniences are associated with collecting feces from young children. If the child cannot empty the intestines in the morning, it is necessary to collect the material the night before and store it in the refrigerator.
In order for analyzes to give the most accurate result, you must follow a few simple rules when collecting material:
- Collect feces should be in a sterile container.
- The material must be carried with a clean stick.
- The use of rectal suppositories, laxatives and enemas on the eve of the study is prohibited.
- It is necessary to exclude the entry of urine elements into the material.
- Feces should be kept sealed in the refrigerator.
- Material intake in cardboard containers or polyethylene is strictly prohibited.
- You can take stool from the surface of the diaper.
For research on enterobiasis, it is necessary to analyze the scraping from the anus. The study of feces in such cases will not work.
Preparing and conducting research
Preparation for this study includes:
- elimination of laxatives and rectal suppositories,
- the abolition of drugs that may affect the color of feces or intestinal motility.
All this must be done seventy-two hours before the start of the study.
A study of the collected material in specialized laboratories. The doctor laboratory assistant prepares a smear from the material provided, which is carefully examined under a microscope. As a result, both adult individuals and their eggs and larvae are found.
The norm in deciphering such analyzes is a negative result, which indicates the absence of parasites in the human body. The estimated time for analysis is six days from the date the material is submitted.
In some cases, a very small number of helminths are diagnosed and then the analysis is re-scheduled to confirm a possible positive result. If a positive result in the form of the analysis indicates those pathogens of helminthiasis that have been identified.
The analysis of feces on helminth eggs makes it possible to identify many known parasites that live in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this case, the patient may not even be aware of their existence. However, helminths cause various diseases, especially severe in children and elderly patients.Therefore, it is necessary to periodically do such a study to ensure that there are no worms, their larvae or eggs in the body and to protect themselves from possible serious complications.
How to test for worms
The results of this simple and painless examination are very informative for the doctor, who according to the complaints of the patient who applied to the patient, suspected helminthiasis. The therapists prescribe to the patient to check the feces on the eggs of helminths in various cases, because the symptoms of infection with parasites can manifest themselves in a variety of ways. So, a person should do an analysis for worms if he has the following signs of infection:
- loss of appetite,
- frequent bloating, indigestion, constipation,
- rash on the skin of an allergic nature, its dryness,
- general fatigue and reduced immunity,
- A child infected with worms may gnash his teeth during sleep.
Helminth analysis by examining feces is an effective way to identify parasites that live in the intestines. After receiving information about the type of worms that a person has become infected with, a doctor can prescribe the right medication. Quickly taken measures for the treatment of helminthiasis will not only stop the disease, but also prevent the introduction of parasites with the blood flow to other organs of the body. In practice, in order to accurately determine the fact of helminthic invasion and the type of worms that have entered the body, an analysis of feces on helminth eggs is carried out by examining feces or taking a perianal scraping from a patient.
The study of feces on helminth eggs
This method of laboratory diagnosis is called coproovoscopy. Analysis of feces for worms is one of the simplest and at the same time very informative way to identify helminthiasis. The procedure for carrying out such an analysis involves a combination of diagnostics according to the Kato method in combination with the methods of Fulleborn or Kalantaryan. During coprooscopic examination, a thick smear of feces is stained, which makes it possible to distinguish the helminth eggs in the feces and count their number. According to the results of this study, the doctor can judge the degree of infection of the patient with parasites.
Scraping on egglist
This analysis is an effective way to diagnose this type of infection with parasites, such as enterobiasis - parasitizing pinworms in the intestine. Often, pediatricians prescribe this diagnosis, because children are much more likely to become infected with parasites, for example, when they do not comply with hygiene requirements by eating unwashed foods. The peculiarity of the pinworm life cycle is that the females of these worms lay eggs around the human anus, so perianal scraping gives full information about the presence of this type of parasites in the body.
In most cases, a technician takes a scraping from a patient directly at a medical facility, but you can also select the material for the study yourself and deliver it to the laboratory. To do this, you need to purchase a special kit in the pharmacy to collect this analysis: a test tube with a cap and with a stick treated with a special solution, intended for taking a smear from the perianal area.
How to collect feces for worms eggs
In order to obtain the most reliable data, the procedure for collecting stool for research should follow a few simple rules given below.
- In order for the results of the analysis to be reliable, two weeks before the study, it is necessary to stop taking antibiotics, antiparasitic, antidiarrheal drugs.
- You can not select the material for the study of the toilet. It is necessary to make an act of defecation on a clean sheet of paper, while it is necessary to ensure that urine does not get on the feces. In order to comply with hygiene requirements, it is better to use disposable gloves when sampling.
- For the analysis, a small amount of biomaterial is taken (about 2 tsp.), At the same time it is necessary to collect the biomaterial from different parts of fecal masses.
- Selected feces for worms should be placed in a clean and dry jar with a tight-fitting lid or a special plastic container. A label should be attached to the container indicating the name and initials of the person who is taking the analysis, his date of birth and the exact time of stool collection.
- Collecting feces on the eggs of worms should not go much earlier than the time it was handed over to the laboratory. The best option - if the material is transferred to the study for 30-40 minutes after a bowel movement. If such a fast delivery is not possible, the sample is stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 4-8 degrees, but not more than 8 hours.
- If such an analysis needs to be handed over to the baby, then it should be put on the pot, and not be taken from the diapers. Parents should also ensure that urine does not enter the stool.
How much test is valid for the egg list
The results of this study have a specific shelf life - 10 days. It is important to know that if the test on the egg list gave a negative result, it is not always uniquely interpreted as the absence of parasites. A reliable result is considered if the patient several times at intervals determined by the doctor has passed a stool test and in each case has received a negative result.
Where to get tested for worms
The patient has the opportunity to be tested for helminthiasis in various medical institutions of their choice. So, tests for worms and do in local clinics, and in private clinics. Today, many people choose to undergo diagnostics in specialized laboratories equipped with modern research equipment - for example, Invitro, Gemotest.
How much fecal analysis is done
The duration of such a study can be from 1 to 3-5 days. This time difference is explained by the different schedule of laboratories and their workload. The method by which an analysis of feces for eggs of worms is carried out is similar in different medical institutions. The laboratory assistant places under the microscope preparations from the patient's biomaterial and examines whether there are parasite eggs or fragments of their membranes. Based on the data obtained, a conclusion is issued with a detailed decoding of the survey results.
How much is the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm
Depending on where a person plans to conduct a study, the price of stool analysis for helminth eggs will vary. The approximate cost of such services in different laboratories varies from 130 to 550 rubles. Such a noticeable difference in price is explained not only by the technical equipment of the institution, but also by its reputation and the speed of issuing diagnostic results.
Analysis of feces for worms (eggs of a worm) - general characteristics
The analysis of feces for worms is properly called the analysis for eggs of the worm, because during the execution of the manipulation an employee of the diagnostic laboratory examines feces for the presence of eggs of various parasitic worms that can affect the organs and tissues of the human body. And since the collective name of all parasitic worms is worms, the main purpose of the analysis is to detect or confirm the absence of eggs of these parasites.
The fact is that in various organs and tissues of the human body can parasitize about 250 species of worms (worms), which multiply by laying eggs. It is these eggs that enter the intestine and are excreted along with the feces. Examination of the smear of feces under a microscope allows us to see with the eye the larvae and eggs of various parasitic worms, thereby diagnosing their presence. That is, the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm is a method for the diagnosis of helminth infections - diseases caused by parasitic worms (worms).
When you need to pass a stool test for eggs of a worm (indications for the study)
The analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm is given in two possible cases:
1. Suspicion of helminth infection (helminthiasis),
2. Barrier analysis.
Barrier analysis is a compulsory study included in the routine procedure of examining people entering work related to the sale, processing or storage of food, contacts with people and other areas of activity in which the transmission of helminths to others is possible. In this situation, the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm is a screening, that is, used for the mass and rapid diagnosis of helminthiasis in many people. Briefly it can be said that as a mandatory barrier analysis of feces on the eggs, the worm surrenders for the registration of the sanitary book and upon admission to kindergarten, school, swimming pool or before the planned hospitalization in the hospital. This analysis must be passed, because the person will be in contact with others, and if he is infected with helminthiasis, he can infect others, thereby spreading the disease.
The second indication for passing an analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm is the suspicion of infection with any helminths. Suspicion of helminthiasis (infection with parasitic worms) occurs when a person has various variable symptoms that interfere with the work of various organs in the absence of a corresponding disease. The fact is that parasitic worms (helminths) can affect various organs and tissues, such as the intestines, bladder, urethra, brain, liver, heart, lymph nodes, and others, causing the symptoms of various diseases. If the examination does not reveal any diseases of the organ with which there are pathological symptoms, then there is a legitimate suspicion of helminthiasis, which requires confirmation or refutation. It is for the purpose of confirming or refuting helminthiasis that the feces on the eggs of the worm are analyzed in such a situation.
The analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm is indicated for delivery if the person has the following symptoms:
- Inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (for example, stomach pain, diarrhea, constipation, flatulence, etc.),
- Disturbing sleep
- Bruxism (creak teeth),
- Itching in the anus,
- Vulvovaginitis in women
- Urinary tract infections,
- Growth and body weight in growing children and adolescents,
- Increased amount of eosinophils in the blood,
- Allergic syndrome of unclear nature, in which it is not possible to identify an allergen that causes a pathological reaction from the body,
- Frequent colds and viral infections.
If you have any of these symptoms, it is necessary to pass an analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm, as they are sufficient factors for suspected helminthiasis. However, only stool analysis may not be enough to diagnose helminthiasis, and if a parasitosis is suspected, you will have to take samples of bile, sputum, duodenal contents and other biological secrets of the human body, which may contain eggs or larvae of parasitic worms.
Preparation for delivery of the analysis of feces on the worms
Before putting feces on the eggs, you should not take castor or mineral oil, antibiotics, antidiarrheals and antiparasitic drugs, as well as bismuth and magnesium preparations for a week. Also, it is not recommended to perform an irrigoscopy for 7 - 14 days before putting feces on the eggs of the worm.
In addition, it is necessary psychologically and morally to tune in to the fact that for the qualitative diagnosis of helminth infections you will need one, and three or six stool samples, which will need to be taken daily or after 1 - 2 days. Three stool specimens are usually necessary, but if a dysentery amoeba or Giardia is suspected, then six fecal samples are optimally taken.
It is recommended to prepare dishes for feces in advance. Nowadays, matchboxes familiar to many people from childhood are no longer used, since laboratories issue special plastic containers with a screw cap. If a container is not issued in the laboratory, you can buy it at a regular pharmacy. It is better to use just such a disposable container, rather than any container or box at home, because they may contain larvae or eggs of parasites brought by accidentally with dirty hands, which will be revealed during the study and thus a person will get a false positive result.
There is no need to make any special preparation for the delivery of feces analysis for eggs.
How to properly collect feces for the analysis of eggs worm?
Before stool, it is necessary to urinate so that urine does not get into the fecal mass. Then, without rinsing the skin of the anus, it is necessary to prick into any container from where it would be convenient to collect stool samples (for example, a pot, a basin, etc.).
From the whole mass of feces, it is necessary to collect a small volume corresponding to approximately two teaspoons, taking samples from different parts of the feces with a special stick soldered to the lid of the sterile container. If there is no container for stool, then samples can be collected with a regular match or stick. It is optimal to take 3 - 4 small pieces from the sides, front and back of the upper surface, as well as from the inside of fecal matter. All collected parts of feces are placed in a container and tightly closed the lid. A piece of paper with a surname, name and patronymic is glued to the container and quickly transported to the laboratory.
For the most accurate results, it is best to pass stool specimens for worm eggs to the laboratory within 30 to 45 minutes after a bowel movement and their collection. However, if it is not possible to take a sample of feces to the laboratory for such a short period of time, this can be done for a maximum of 5 to 8 hours, keeping the feces in the refrigerator at a temperature of +4 +8 o C. If the feces did not lie in the refrigerator for more than 60 minutes , and in a warm room, they are not suitable for putting eggs on the worm. In this case, you will have to throw away the spoiled sample and collect a new one after the next bowel movement.
For accurate and comprehensive diagnosis, it is necessary to pass only three feces samples. Moreover, samples can be collected daily or after 1 - 2 days. The final result of the study can be obtained only after studying three samples.
The result of the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm and its decoding
Normally, the result of the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm in all three samples should be negative. This means that helminth eggs are not detected, and the person is not infected with parasitic worms.
A positive result in at least one of the feces samples is an indication that helminths have been found in humans, and, therefore, they are infected with parasitic worms. In such a situation, it will be necessary to undergo a course of treatment and, after one month after its completion, pass a repeated analysis of feces.
If the result of the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm is positive, then it indicates what kind of parasitic helminths was detected. An approximate formulation of a positive analysis of feces for eggs of the worm is the following: "Positively, ascaris eggs." In each laboratory, the formulation may vary slightly, but it will necessarily contain the term "positively", meaning the presence of parasitic worms, and the name of the type of helminths whose eggs were detected.
What methods are used by laboratories for the analysis of fecal worm eggs?
The detection of parasitic worms in stool samples in the laboratory is carried out using methods of coproovoscopy (helminthyoscope), that is, the detection of helminth eggs. In laboratories for the diagnosis of parasites in humans, three main methods of coprooscopy are commonly used:
1. Native smear microscopy,
2. Fulleborn method
3. Taleman method.
Typically, a stool sample is sequentially subjected to all three methods of coproovoscopy. And first of all, a native smear microscopy is carried out, and then Fulleborn and Taleman are sampled in a random order.
The Fulleborn sample is to mix feces with salt water, which has a high density and specific gravity, due to which the helminth eggs float to its surface. For the test, 10 g of feces is stirred with 100 ml of a 50% solution of common salt. The solution is prepared as follows - 450-500 g of salt is dissolved in 1 liter of water, heating it to a temperature of 50 - 70 o C.
A mixture of feces with salt water is placed in a quiet place for 1 - 1.5 hours, so that the helminth eggs float to the surface of the solution. After the required amount of time, the film that has appeared on the surface is removed by a loop and is applied to a glass slide. The film is covered with a cover glass and examined under a microscope.
A sample of Taleman is a mixture of feces with hydrochloric acid and ether, with the help of which they emit helminth eggs. To produce a sample of Taleman, a small amount of feces is mixed with 3-4 ml of 30% hydrochloric acid and 15-20 ml of distilled water. Then, 1 - 1.5 ml of ether is added to the feces suspension, mixed thoroughly and the vessel is sealed tightly with a rubbed or rubber cap. Then the vessel is turned down several times with its throat, mixing the contents. After that, the suspension is filtered through a single layer of gauze and centrifuged. The precipitate obtained after centrifugation is placed on a glass slide, covered with a cover glass and examined under a microscope.
If at least one sample was found the helminth eggs, the result of the analysis is considered positive.
Analysis of feces for worms - where to pass?
You can take an analysis of feces for worms in any clinical diagnostic laboratory in the municipal clinic or hospital. However, for the most reliable results, it is recommended to pass an analysis of feces in specialized bacteriological laboratories, which are available at the sanitary and epidemiological services of each city or district.
In addition, you can take the analysis in a private laboratory or clinic that has a license to conduct such a diagnostic study.