Dorsal diffuse disc protrusion

The proliferation of computers in the modern human environment has led to the fact that long pastime in a forced position negatively affects the health of the spinal column. A prolonged stay in a bent position, a violation of posture causes pain in the back and neck. The consequence of this is protrusion of the spinal disc.

What is disc protrusion?

Spinal disc protrusion is its bulging into the spinal canal, while the fibrous ring remains intact. Degenerative disc changes can lead to serious consequences for human health. Protrusion is divided into upper and lower.

The localization of pain depends on the location of the disc undergoing degeneration. A mechanical effect on a disc that extends beyond the vertebra leads to the appearance of acute pain of an intermittent nature. The most commonly diagnosed dorsal type of protrusion.

Dorsal (synonyms: posterior, dorsal) protrusion - an increase in the intervertebral disc in the posterior direction. This kind of pathology is the most dangerous, since there is a high risk of infringement of the ponytail - an extensive bundle of nerve endings. Most often, this danger arises when the first sacral and fifth lumbar disc are infringed - this is the dorsal protrusion L5-S1.

Causes of the disease

Dorsal disc protrusion is not considered an independent disease. This is one of the stages of osteochondrosis or the initial stage of development of an intervertebral hernia. Pathology most often appears in the lumbar or cervical spine, although it can occur in any segment. The intervertebral disc is designed for uniform compression of its vertebrae. Frequent convergence of adjacent vertebrae with each other leads to an asymmetric load on the intervertebral disc. Protrusion - squeezing a disc with an uneven load on the vertebrae.

CNS neuroinfection, including the spinal cord,

Inflammation or an allergic process that affects the spine,

Hereditary pathology of the formation of the spine,

Injuries and circulatory disorders of the spinal column and spinal cord.

Symptoms of Disk Protrusion

The swelling of the disc is manifested by the following symptoms:

Acute pain radiating to the limb, on the shoulder, buttock,

Violation of the full work of internal organs.

At the first manifestation of symptoms, clarification of the diagnosis is required. Most often, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is performed for this. This method will allow to carry out differential diagnostics from other pathologies of the spine, to detect even minimal changes in the structure of intervertebral discs.

Circular

The circular dorsal protrusion of the intervertebral disc is characterized by a uniform bulging of the disc body beyond the spinal canal. Each segment of the spine with a similar pathology increases the load on its other parts and thereby provokes the appearance of new lesions.

Even the minimal protrusion of the L5-S1 spinal disc is accompanied by severe pain. Additional symptoms are numbness of the limb and its paralysis. Untimely diagnosis and treatment of pathology leads to the development of a vertebral hernia and an increase in negative manifestations.

Diffuse protrusion is an uneven bulging of the spinal disc in several places. It is characterized by numerous complications. With untimely treatment, the compressed nerve endings become inflamed, the conductivity of nerve impulses decreases.

The protrusion of the L4-L5 disk is often asymptomatic, which causes untimely diagnosis. If you suspect diffuse protrusion, you should clarify the degree of damage to the disk and begin treatment to avoid serious complications.

The main symptom of diffuse protrusion is a peculiar sound of a click or a crunch, the appearance of severe pain.

Dorsal medialprotrusion - one of the varieties of this pathology. It is characterized by a protrusion of the disk along the median (exactly in the middle). Since the disc protrudes into the lumen of the canal of the spinal cord, with the course of the disease it is more and more irritated.

Diagnostics

The complete picture of protrusion is determined by a neurologist. He examines the patient’s history, symptoms of the disease, the results of an X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) scan. Based on the diagnostic results, the type of protrusion is determined, the degree of damage to the intervertebral disc.

To get an objective picture of the condition of the spine, the examination is carried out in a complex. Performing CT alone does not provide objective information.

With insufficient resolution of the tomograph, a hardware examination will not accurately determine the degree of damage to the spinal cord and the size of the protrusion. The most complete picture of the pathology will show MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).

What can be seen on the results of MRI:

Spinal canal sizes,

Degree of disc change,

The size and location of the bulge of the disk (protrusion),

In most cases, timely access to a specialist, after treatment, patients can rely on the reverse development or suspension of pathological processes.

Protrusion treatments

Therapy of dorsal protrusion of the intervertebral disc requires time and considerable effort.

Conservative treatment is quite time-consuming, it includes a set of measures:

Several courses of specialized massage,

Physiotherapy exercises (LFK),

The help of a chiropractor

Hirudotherapy (treatment with leeches),

Algorithm for the treatment of dorsal protrusion therapy:

Therapeutic measures at the first stage are aimed at relieving the pain symptom.

The second stage of treatment is aimed at stretching and developing the flexibility of the spine, stimulating the blood supply to the spinal cord.

At the third stage, complex therapy helps relieve swelling of tissues, reduce pressure on nerve endings, and increase muscle tone of the back and abdominal muscles.

The treatment regimen is determined by the attending physician, any self-medication can result in serious complications, up to the development of disability.

Drug treatment aimed at relieving pain and improving blood supply to the spinal cord. It is only part of a set of measures and solves only part of the patient’s problems. An important condition for successful treatment is limiting the loads on the spine at the site of the lesion.

Physiotherapeutic treatment is used to eliminate swelling and inflammation of the tissues. Physiotherapy helps to improve metabolic processes at the lesion site, to control pain.

Diet, physiotherapy exercises, massage complement and consolidate the positive effect. These events are held simultaneously.

Massage regulates muscle tone, with excessive tension, massage movements relax them, with weakening and inaction of muscle groups, massage brings them into tone.

The purpose of the diet in the treatment of dorsal protrusion is to maximize the saturation of the body with nutrients and trace elements for the successful regeneration of damaged tissues. A timely course of treatment will help to avoid complications and surgical intervention.

To prevent the appearance of dorsal protrusion of the intervertebral disc, to avoid prolonged treatment, preventive measures are used. A specially selected corset will allow you to unload the spine under static loads.

Measures to prevent the appearance of protrusion:

Performing exercises to strengthen the muscle corset,

Quitting alcohol and smoking,

Performing a yoga complex aimed at correcting posture,

During prolonged work at the computer, it is recommended to take a break to warm up, monitor posture, and change the position of the body.

With an increased risk of protrusion, it is advisable to change the type of activity to exclude static load on the spine.

Education: In 2005, an internship was held at the First Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University and a diploma in neurology was obtained. In 2009 graduate school in the specialty "Nervous Diseases" was completed.

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Spinal disc protrusion is a pathological bulging of the intervertebral disc into the spinal canal, which is not accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the fibrous ring. Disc protrusion should not be considered as an independent disease. Protrusion is one of the stages of osteochondrosis, which further leads to the formation of a hernia.

Disc protrusion of the lumbar spine is the exit of the disc beyond the vertebrae, but with the preservation of the integrity of the fibrous ring. Although protrusion is not an independent disease, but only a condition preceding the occurrence of a hernia, it is necessary to get rid of it. How to treat protrusion of the spinal disc and with what methods can be achieved as quickly as possible.

The greatest load is on the lumbosacral spine, so it is obvious that it is he who undergoes pathological changes. About 48% of hernias develop at a level between the fifth vertebra and the sacrum, somewhat less frequently (46%) the hernia affects the disc between the fourth and fifth vertebrae.

What is the essence of dorsal diffuse protrusion

Dorsal diffuse disc protrusion what is it? Protrusion is a pathology in a particular area of ​​the spine. Scientists from around the world for many years carry out various studies of this pathology, using the most modern tools.

Dorsal protrusion has one characteristic feature, due to which the probability of damage to the spinal cord increases for sick people. When protrusion occurs, the discs bulge out over time.

Protrusion, before being transformed into a hernia, goes through certain stages. At the stage of protrusion of the disk, the pulpous nucleus begins to move to the side, pressure appears on the fibrous ring. A small inconspicuous bulge is formed, which can grow to half the circumference of the disk.

Dorsal diffuse protrusion of the discs is characterized by the fact that the bulge increases in size, then the pressure on the spinal column increases. The nucleus is in the right range due to the fibrous ring.

After a certain time, the ring bursts, because it can not withstand constant loads. At the same time, a certain amount of the pulpous nucleus goes beyond. Therefore, a hernia of the intervertebral disc appears.

Why is pathology formed?

Protrusion of the intervertebral discs develops not only due to osteochondrosis, but also for the following reasons:

  • Spinal problems
  • Child bearing
  • Genetic conditioning
  • Injuries during childbirth.

There are such risk factors:

  • Passive lifestyle
  • Age from 55 years
  • The abuse of tobacco and alcohol.

Dorsal diffuse protrusion can form under the influence of changes in the hormonal background, based on menopause or malfunctions in the thyroid gland.

Also, a person develops a disease if there is an allergy, infection, or vascular change. Additional reasons include excessive loads. Allergies and infections lead to inflammation in the body. With heavy loads, small injuries form in the spine, which subsequently can become diffuse protrusion.

Vascular changes lead to disruption of the process of transporting the necessary elements to the spine. In this regard, the condition of the intervertebral disc begins to deteriorate, it loses its characteristics, so diffuse protrusion begins.

Main manifestations

Dorsal protrusion of the disc, as a rule, is expressed in certain symptoms. They depend on the characteristics of the human body and the location of the protrusion.

Most often you can observe:

  • Involuntary urination and bowel movements,
  • Migraines, impaired mental activity due to problems with blood flow,
  • Decreased leg sensitivity
  • Malfunctioning of some systems
  • Crunch in different parts of the spine.

It is established that in the early stages of formation, diffuse protrusion acts as a provocateur of various inflammatory processes. After a while, a person has stagnation in neighboring tissues.

Diagnostic procedures

For the first minor symptoms, it is important to consult a neurologist or general practitioner in the community.

To make a correct diagnosis you will need:

  • Investigate the complex of symptoms and manifestations,
  • Study x-ray pictures,
  • Compare the results of MRI and computed tomography.

Using magnetic resonance imaging:

  • The scale of the lesion and the level of the inflammatory process in the spinal column are evaluated,
  • The width of the spinal canal is determined,
  • Pathologies developing in parallel with protrusion are noted.

Therapeutic measures

The success of therapy largely depends on the time of diagnosis of the pathology. If the presence of a problem is noticed in time, then, most often, it is possible to stop the progression of the disease without surgical intervention.

Initially, therapy should be prescribed and certain loads should be limited. At an early stage of a human ailment, neurological disorders torment. The task is to begin to control the pain syndrome, as well as to eliminate the inflammatory process.

The next necessary stage of treatment are:

  • Diet food
  • Therapeutic exercises
  • Massages.

These treatments are optional. They have an effect only if they are used simultaneously with the methods of traditional medicine. Massage provides an opportunity to improve the functioning of the back muscles. Thanks to massage, it is possible to achieve muscle relaxation. At the same time, they become more flexible and resilient.

With the help of dietary nutrition, all the necessary microelements and beneficial substances appear in the body. It is no secret that it is metabolic disorders that are the key reason for the formation of osteochondrosis.

Thanks to medical gymnastics, the necessary load on the muscles of the spine is provided, as well as metabolic processes are activated, and the overall tone is improved.

At the easy stages of the progression of pathology, it is not necessary to carry out surgery. It is permissible to conduct it a little later, if the protrusion is transformed into a hernia. Sometimes drug therapy does not bring a visible effect, the patient's condition only gets worse.

Prevention methods

In order to prevent dorsal diffuse protrusion of the disc, it is important to follow certain rules:

  • Exercise as much as possible: yoga, swimming and similar exercises,
  • Toe corsets that reduce back strain
  • Control body weight. You need to adhere to a healthy diet, carefully form a daily menu,
  • Maintain posture when walking, and while doing work while sitting,
  • Refusal from smoking, alcoholic beverages and other bad habits that harm human health and act as provocateurs of dangerous ailments,
  • To treat ailments due to which a person’s metabolic processes are disturbed,
  • Do not load the spinal column and do not carry gravity.

With excess weight, a person needs to consult a nutritionist who will create a therapeutic nutrition scheme.Adhering to the developed scheme and exercise program, the body will eventually come in excellent shape, strength and endurance will appear, and the progression of the disease can be slowed down.

What it is?

The human spine consists of disks (a core surrounded by a fibrous ring), which, due to pathological processes in the human body, can dry out. Drying leads to a decrease in support function due to which the disk is cracked, the fibrous ring protrudes. On the sides of each disc are intervertebral foramen through which the spinal roots pass, which are compressed by protrusion. If the ailment is limited to protrusion without a gap - this is called protrusion, when the disease breaks, the disease passes into a hernia.

There are 4 known types of vertebral protrusions: circular, diffuse, median, foraminal. In this article, we will consider in detail the diffuse form of the disease, as the most common among patients, which is also called dorsal or posterior. With this form of the disease, there is an uneven protrusion in the back direction (i.e. from the chest to the back). Typically, diffuse protrusion affects the L4-L5 discs (lumbar). However, there are cases of ailment in the cervical or thoracic.

The main reason leading to the development of the disease is the existing degenerative or pathological processes affecting the cartilage tissue of the intervertebral discs (osteochondrosis, for example). These processes lead to a decrease in the water content in tissues, which leads to their drying and weakening. As a result, they become thinner, looser, crack, which leads to protrusion.

Factors provoking the disease:

  1. Metabolic disorders and / or blood supply to the spine.
  2. Passive lifestyle leading to weakened muscle corset.
  3. Constant high physical activity.
  4. Diseases, spinal injuries.

It is important to understand that pathological processes alone are not enough for the occurrence of an ailment - you need a factor that provokes it.

Complications

If protrusion is ignored, not treated, the disease progresses to a complicated form, in which the fibrous ring breaks, the nucleus exits and a hernia forms.

To prevent this from happening, the patient must notice the disease on time and consult a doctor for treatment.

Displacement of disks in the initial stages of the disease is insignificant: from 1 to 5 mm. In some cases, the disease is asymptomatic. However, with a stronger protrusion, the nerve roots are irritated, patients complain of painful sensations that are paroxysmal in nature. The pains are very strong, shooting, extending to the buttocks. Along with this, the mobility of the lumbar and legs decreases, difficulties appear during walking. There are sensations of numbness, goosebumps, burning sensation at the site of the lesion, back muscles strain reflexively.

With localization of the lesion in the cervical spine, the blood supply to the vertebral arteries, which transport blood to the brain, is disturbed. From this arise:

  • headaches,
  • dizziness
  • unpleasant sensations in the neck, passing on the shoulders,
  • numbness of the hands
  • general deterioration of the state of the body, decreased performance.

Neck pain during protrusion

The thoracic region is extremely rarely affected by protrusion, due to its additional reinforcement with the rib frame.

Medicines

The main goal of taking drugs is to relieve pain and inflammation. For this purpose, topical medicines are used in the form of gels, ointments: Diclac gel, Indomethacin, Voltaren. They are applied to the affected area with neat, massaging circular motions. Due to the concomitant warming effect, they stimulate blood microcirculation, improving metabolic processes at the site of the lesion. Thus, the flow of nutrients necessary for tissue repair is ensured. Together with gels, vitamin complexes are prescribed.

To improve the protective functions, restore cartilage, drugs are prescribed with the general name chondroprotectors (Chondroitin, Rumalon). They increase the body's resistance to physical activity, as well as other environmental influences.

To strengthen the muscle corset of the neck and back, it is recommended to sign up for a course of therapeutic massage with an orthopedist or manual therapist. The minimum course duration is 2 weeks. In addition, the point effects of the fingers of a masseur’s fingers stimulate blood circulation, soothe the nervous system, and help relieve pain.

Massage is a very effective treatment for protrusion of the neck.

Kinesitherapy

You can recover by performing therapeutic physical exercises on special simulators. The doctor develops an individual program based on the characteristics and needs of the patient. All exercises are performed under the supervision of an instructor.

Thanks to movements in a certain way, the mechanical effect on pain receptors is reduced, thereby achieving an analgesic effect. The bones and joints of a person naturally assume a position, optimally distributing the load on the spine.

Physiotherapy

The action of therapeutic exercises gives a similar effect that the patient receives from massage or kinesitherapy. Depending on the location of the disease, mobile or static exercises are prescribed. Gymnastics does not require any gymnastic apparatus, you only need a rug, soft mat or chair. A great advantage of exercise therapy is that it can be performed in any position: standing, sitting, lying down, which makes this system accessible to people with varying degrees of disease severity.

Therapeutic exercises will help relieve pain during protrusion

Nucleoplasty

A minimally invasive form of surgery used to treat diffuse protrusion. The main advantage of nucleoplasty over other surgical techniques is minimal damage to healthy tissues, quick rehabilitation (4-5 days). The procedure takes no more than an hour.

The essence of the technique is to guide the needle into the affected area, acting on it with cold plasma energy, due to which there is a decrease in disk volume and elimination of protrusion, with which the pain syndrome passes.

For successful treatment, patients need to make nutritional changes. Since degenerative processes in the body are associated with a lack of minerals and vitamins, foods with a high content of these substances should be added to the diet:

  • jelly,
  • jelly broths
  • dairy products,
  • meat and fish dishes,
  • bean
  • fruits and vegetables,
  • nuts

It is important to monitor the water balance and drink plenty of water to prevent the disk from drying out. Limit daily salt intake to reduce the risk of osteochondrosis and other pathological processes of bones and joints. It is recommended to refuse caffeine, since it flushes calcium out of the body.

You need to eat 4-5 times a day in small portions. In no case can not be transmitted - this increases the load on the spine.

Prevention

  1. Watch the posture of yourself and the children. If curvature is detected, a set of corrective procedures should be started.
  2. Observe the regime of the day and rest, do not overload the back with prolonged sitting, high physical exertion.
  3. Eat regularly and balanced, increase the intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts.
  4. If back pain, crunching, swelling and other unusual phenomena occur, seek medical advice.
  5. If a doctor prescribes treatment for you, faithfully and fully follow his recommendations.

Important! A disease is easier to prevent than to cure, so compliance with preventive measures is the key to the health of your body.

Conclusion

Today we examined the diffuse protrusion of the spine, the causes of this ailment and treatment methods. We also presented a separate section for symptoms, so that you can recognize the disease in your own time and consult a doctor. Follow preventive measures, be attentive to yourself and be healthy!

The concept of protrusion

Protrusion is the first stage of the formation of an intervertebral hernia. It is characterized by protrusion of the intervertebral disc beyond the spine without violating the integrity of the fibrous ring.

It is of several types, and one of its most dangerous forms is dorsal diffuse disc protrusion.

Diffuse protrusion is said to be when the intervertebral disc is damaged by 25 to 50%, therefore, it goes beyond acceptable limits quite strongly. But the concept of “dorsal” indicates that the disc falls out towards the spinal canal and, under adverse conditions, can compress or damage the spinal cord and nerve roots. And also this type of protrusion of the intervertebral disc is also called dorsal or posterior protrusion.

Protrusion can form in any part of the spine. But it is especially dangerous if it forms in the cervical segment, since in this area the vertebrae are thinner and the spinal canal is narrower.

According to medical data, the lumbar region most often suffers, because it accounts for the maximum load. As a rule, protrusion between the 5th lumbar and 1st sacral vertebra, or protrusion l5 s1 is diagnosed in this part of the spine. This condition is observed in half of patients suffering from prolapse of the disc in this segment of the back.

According to medical data, in almost 10% of patients, the 1st sacral, 5th, 4th, and less often the 3rd lumbar vertebra are affected, that is, there is a dorsal diffuse protrusion of l5 s1, l4 l5, l3 l4.

Clinical picture

Signs of dorsal diffuse protrusion can vary significantly and depend on the size of the protrusion of the disk, because it compresses the spinal cord, nerve roots and blood vessels localized in the damaged area.

According to the observations of specialists, the ailment may not manifest itself in any way for a long time, but the patient may experience such symptoms of the disease as:

  • headaches,
  • vertigo
  • pain in the affected area of ​​the spine of varying intensity, which can radiate to the limb,
  • tingling and numbness of the fingertips,
  • discoloration and humidity of the skin,
  • urinary incontinence,
  • progression of pathologies of the genitourinary and digestive organs,
  • patellar reflex disorder,
  • lower back pain when lifting a flat leg.

Pain in the patient intensifies after physical exertion and forced being in the same position; in some patients, malaise can be observed with inhalation or coughing. Often, you can hear a crunch or click, after which the pain becomes more intense.

If you start the course of the disease, then the progression of protrusion into the hernia is possible, which can provoke severe complications. Since the lumbar region most often suffers, the following symptoms develop with a hernia:

  • paresis of the lower extremities,
  • incontinence of not only urine, but also feces.

All this leads to disability of the patient, and in some cases to disability.

The main causes of the disease

Protrusion of the intervertebral disc is a common disease, most often characteristic of the age category older than 30 years. The cause of its development may be a hereditary predisposition or numerous factors that impair blood supply and reduce the supply of intervertebral discs with nutrients. These factors primarily include:

  • A sedentary lifestyle, a long stay in an uncomfortable position.
  • Excessive exercise, sudden movements.
  • A variety of injuries of the spinal column.
  • The presence of excess weight, impaired metabolism.
  • Vertebral pathologies (scoliosis, osteochondrosis, hyperkyphosis and others).

General and local symptoms of disc protrusion

Symptoms in protrusion depend on the location of the lesion, the causes of the deformation of the disc, the individual characteristics of the patient. In the initial stages of the formation of the disease, any signs of the disease may be completely absent. Of the most common symptoms of protrusion of the intervertebral disc, it is worth highlighting:

  • Chronic, radiating or migratory pains, a burning sensation.
  • Sensation of numbness and tingling in the upper or lower extremities.
  • Stiffness of movements, radiculopathy.
  • Periodic headaches.

The disease most often occurs in the lumbar and cervical regions, at the junction of the mobile segments of the spine. Less commonly, protrusion appears in the thoracic region. The manifestation of the disease in various parts of the spinal column, in addition to the main symptoms, may be accompanied by symptoms that are unique to each department.

  1. The cervical spine. Since this department is particularly mobile, there is a risk of faster wear of the discs that connect the seven cervical vertebrae. When protrusion occurs, chronic or local pains are felt in the lateral and posterior parts of the neck, headaches, head rotation is difficult, partial numbness of the upper extremities, muscle weakness and irritability are observed.
  2. Thoracic department. For the most part, segments of this spine are characterized by low mobility. The bulk of the dynamic loads are on the intervertebral discs of the lower thoracic region. In the presence of protrusion, pain is observed in the region of the heart and between the shoulder blades, there is a “squeezing” of the back, weakness of the abdominal muscles, intercostal neuralgia, sharp pains occur when taking a deep breath.
  3. Lumbar One of the more likely places for localization of protrusion is considered to be the lumbar region, this is primarily due to its close location to the center of gravity of the body, which indicates large loads on the lumbar region. An additional negative factor is age-related degenerative changes in the spine. With the disease, chronic pain, backache and stiffness in the lower back are observed, a violation of the genitourinary system, partial numbness or tingling in the lower extremities, pain in the sciatic nerve are possible.

Classification of protrusions

The following types of protrusion of the intervertebral disc are distinguished:

  1. Median (central). It is characterized by a deformation in which the disk swells into the lumen of the spinal canal and acts on the membranes of the spinal cord, exerting a pressing effect and leading to their irritation.
  2. Lateral (lateral). This type of protrusion is not common. The direction of protrusion is to the right or left of the central part of the spine. Pain, as a rule, occurs only in case of compression of the roots of the spinal cord.
  3. Posterolateral. In this case, the disc protrudes to one side and back (meaning the direction to the spinal cord). There is pressure on the spinal nerves, which causes severe pain.
  4. Dorsal (back). The protrusion occurs in the direction "from the abdomen to the back" (towards the spinal cord). Such protrusion often causes acute pain due to compression of the nerve roots.
  5. Ventral (front). In medical practice is extremely rare. A protrusion of the disc is formed "from the back to the stomach", in the direction opposite to the posterior protrusion. Clinical manifestations of the disease in most cases are absent.
  6. Foraminal. The intervertebral disc protrudes toward the foraminal openings of the vertebra. This can be dangerous, since nerve processes of the spinal cord, as well as small vessels, come out of these holes.
  7. (circular). Uniform protrusion of a disk from all directions.A very common type of disease that can in an advanced stage lead to infringement of the spinal nerves.
  8. Diffuse. Uneven and repeated protrusion of the intervertebral disc. An extremely unfavorable form of protrusion, indicating multiple damage to the disc, which sometimes leads to serious complications.


In this classification, the main existing types of protrusions are given, and other, combined forms of the disease, for example, dorsal diffuse, circular-dorsal and other protrusions, are also found.

Disk protrusion treatment, a complex of various techniques

Intervertebral discs have the potential for self-healing, so the course of treatment is aimed at activating this mechanism. Modern techniques can also relieve pain and prevent the progression of the disease:

Circular - foraminal

As a result of the development of protrusion of the disc, the nerve roots are compressed on the right or left side of the axis along which the spinal cord passes. Pathology of intense pain that occurs in the form of seizures. Decrease and subsequent loss of sensitivity, peripheral paralysis are frequent consequences.

Dorsally circular

The loin almost always becomes the place of localization (the greatest protrusion is observed in the dorsal section), the hernia can come into contact with the spinal cord. Pathology can spread to the spinal cord, the result is a hernia of the spinal column.

Disc protrusions of any kind increase the likelihood of disturbances in the functioning of the internal organs of a person due to the fact that the nerve roots are infringed.

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Localization and symptoms

Until the nerve roots are affected or squeezed, the development of protrusion proceeds almost imperceptibly for the patient.

Signs of the occurrence of pathology vary and are directly dependent on the type of protrusion, stage of its development and location. Some patients suffer from intense acute pain, and some patients feel a slight “tingling” in their toes. If the disease is relatively calm, many patients take its symptoms as a result of ordinary fatigue and do not take any measures until the disease passes into an advanced stage, when severe pain is observed.

Depending on which part of the spine develops a pathology, differences in symptoms will be present.

Lumbar

  • The legs go numb (including numbness of the feet and fingers), a “tingling” sensation appears in them,
  • Patient weakness in the muscles of the thighs and calves,
  • Movement becomes limited
  • Pain of a chronic nature is felt in the lumbar region,
  • In the lumbosacral section there are "backache",
  • In the later stages of the development of the disease, a violation of the genitourinary system occurs.

Since the center of gravity is located here and the site experiences the most intense loads, protrusions are often localized in it.

Thoracic department

  • Acute and sudden bouts of pain in the intercostal space or chest,
  • There is a feeling that the back is “constrained” and painful, most often in its middle part,
  • The abdomen is numb or there is a feeling of "tingling"
  • The patient feels a feeling of weakness in the abdominal muscles,
  • The respiratory system may deteriorate.

In the thoracic region, circular protrusion of the intervertebral discs occurs infrequently, since this section of the spine is characterized by low mobility, which means it is subjected to less stress.

One of the serious disorders of the spine is protrusion. This disease is not isolated, therefore it is considered as a syndrome of osteochondrosis. Sometimes the disease becomes a borderline condition that occurs before the appearance of a hernia.

With protrusion of the spine, an incorrect location of the intervertebral disc is formed. In this case, the ring surrounding the gelatinous core, at first remains intact. Answering the question of what is protrusion, it should be noted: this is the most common form of dystrophic changes in which hernias form. At each stage of the development of the disease, a violation of the integrity of the ring occurs.

The displacement is up to 0.5 cm. If such a protrusion has dimensions up to 3 mm, it does not pose a threat to life. Protrusion is detected with this shift accidentally during the examination of the body for the presence of other abnormalities.

If the dimensions of the deviation region are more substantial, then at first the patient feels discomfort, then irritation of the nerve roots occurs. The latter causes serious pain, which is not permanent.

The formation of an ailment can occur for various reasons:

  • incorrect posture
  • violation of the development of the muscular skeleton,
  • the presence of excess body weight,
  • hormonal disbalance,
  • age-related changes.

Symptoms of protrusion may appear against the background of developing osteochondrosis. The intervertebral disc begins to suffer from a lack of incoming substances. The less food cells in this part of the vertebral skeleton, the faster the loss of moisture and elasticity. With such a pathology, even minimal trauma can become a prerequisite for the development of the disease.

Doctors, answering the question, protrusion of the intervertebral discs - what is it, say that pathology can also occur with abnormal development of the skeletal shaft. This phenomenon includes the syndrome of additional cervical ribs and some others. Various spinal ailments and injuries can also become a prerequisite.

Indirect factors affecting the formation of the disease are age-related changes in the body and hereditary prerequisites.

When answering the question: what is protrusion of the intervertebral discs, we note that it can be located in different parts of the skeletal shaft. In a large number of cases, the disease develops in the lumbar region, rarely in the chest.

Lumbar disease can occur at any age. There are pulling sensations in the lumbar region when the body is positioned for a long time in one position. Protrusion in the neck gives pain to the upper limbs, there is a violation of the sensitivity of the fingers, their sweating increases.

Stages of the development of the disease:

  • First one. Pain appears due to the formation of cracks in the surrounding tissues. The stage is accompanied by violations in the functionality of the kernel.
  • The second one. The disk is shifting. The pain is not constant, it can be dull.
  • The third. Pronounced static-dynamic disturbances occur, numbness of the limbs is noted.

Classification of the disease occurs on the basis of the direction of protrusion of the disk:

  1. Circular. In this form, the protrusive disk evenly changes its position. A feature of such a disease is slow development. Such a disease is prone to a prolonged course without pronounced signs. The prerequisite is the lack of nutrition of the element.
  2. Local Incorrect position of the disc with a bias in one direction. Studying the "protrusion of the disk", we note that there are several subspecies of this form. With dorsal protrusion occurs in the direction of the spinal region. This is the most unfavorable option, which is associated with a high degree of risk of compression of nerve roots. Lateral view implies a protrusion to the right or left side.

Signs of the development of the disease depend on in which zone the disease has formed. If protrusion of the intervertebral disc appeared in the cervical region, then you will encounter symptoms:

  • pressure drops
  • discomfort in the area of ​​localization of pathology,
  • dizziness and migraine,
  • weakness in the fingers
  • difficulty holding the head.

The neck is the most mobile zone, therefore protrusion of the intervertebral discs is common in this area. This condition is dangerous, because in addition to compression of the nerves, the throughput of the artery decreases. The latter passes in the canal, provides nutrition and blood supply to the posterior third of the brain.

With protrusion of the chest, severe pain appears in the sternum, between the shoulder blades. The patient may feel stiff. The appearance of shortness of breath is noted, especially often this phenomenon is observed with a deep breath.

The difficulty lies in the fact that such symptomatology can also occur with a violation in the work of other organs. Therefore, the patient goes to the clinic, where he begins to be treated for other diseases. During this time, the disease continues to develop.

Protrusion of the vertebrae of the lumbar region violates normal life. Pain spreads to the legs. Symptoms of lumbosacral radiculitis develop. Stiffness and limitation of the amplitude of movement appear. Due to a violation of the blood supply, a disturbance in the functioning of the pelvic organs occurs. Over time, there is a decrease in muscle strength of the lower extremities and the development of paralysis.

With protrusion of the vertebrae in the lumbar region, the discs between the last lumbar formation and the sacrum are often damaged. In the upper parts, such changes occur less frequently.

Diagnosis of protrusion is a series of laboratory and instrumental methods aimed at making the correct diagnosis and determining the localization of the place of deviation. Diagnosis is carried out in two ways: an initial examination by a specialist and the appointment of additional examination methods.

A detailed study of the deviation, to compare them with the symptoms of protrusion, can be done using MRI and computed tomography. Using these methods, you can identify any stage of damage. For example, at the initial stage, the pulpous nucleus protrudes in the peripheral direction. A formation appears that does not exceed half the circumference of the disk.

The onset of the first symptoms usually occurs after the age of 30 years. The neurologist or therapist uses manual tests in the initial appointment to determine the location. To make a differential diagnosis, ultrasound of organs located close to the painful area is used.

If any symptom of protrusion is pronounced, then diagnosis and treatment can be carried out in a hospital. In this case, laboratory tests are performed that allow you to simultaneously establish the presence of an inflammatory process.

Depending on the area in which there are symptoms of protrusion, a therapeutic effect is prescribed. It includes:

  • taking medication
  • physiotherapy
  • surgical methods
  • folk medicine.

During illness you need:

  • eat right,
  • keep track of your diet
  • take measures aimed at normalizing weight,
  • refrain from physical exertion, stress and hypothermia.

With reconstructive treatment of protrusion of the disc, exercise therapy and manual exposure methods are effective. Their main task is to relax the muscles and remove excessive pressure on the root area, the area of ​​the spinal cord.

During the period of remission of the disease, there is practically no pain, but patients complain of discomfort in the limbs, which makes it difficult to perform normal activities. At this time, the emphasis is on supporting methods.

Protrusion drug therapy

Protrusion is successfully treated with conservative methods, which are aimed at reducing soreness and inflammation, relieving swelling and blood supply. The following groups of tools are used:

  • NSAIDs. They reduce the amount of inflammation.
  • Muscle relaxants. They are aimed at relieving muscle tension. This leads to a decrease in the severity of pain.
  • Glucocorticosteroids. They are prescribed in the absence of the proper effect of taking other drugs. Typically, injections are made into soft tissues in the area of ​​nerve compression.
  • Chondoprotectors. Are placed in the area of ​​the intervertebral disc.
  • Means for improving blood circulation.

If protrusion causes severe pain, painkillers are prescribed. Sometimes a blockade of roots is prescribed.

In the treatment of protrusion in the sternum, methods aimed at stretching the column are prescribed. Pathology of the cervical region often requires the use of a special collar. Additionally, treatment is prescribed:

  • magnetic field
  • ultrasound
  • electrophoresis.

These methods can be used in the acute stage. The precaution uses a special set of exercises. Techniques in which there are circular movements cannot be included in it, since they can lead to even greater injury to the area. All gymnastic exercises occur under the supervision of a doctor.

Treatment of protrusion of intervertebral discs with physiotherapeutic methods allows you to completely get rid of the disease. Especially good results can be obtained with complex exposure.

Protrusion can also be cured using traditional medicine. Garlic compresses are effective. To do this, grind 300 gr. garlic, combine with 150 ml of vodka. Tincture should be in a dark place for 10 days. The finished mixture is superimposed with a thin layer at the site of concentration of pain. From above it is covered with oilcloth and a warm cloth. After 40 minutes, the compress is removed.

Vertebral disc protrusion is also treated using nettle baths or Kalanchoe leaf. In the first case, nettle is cut with a knife. Make a decoction of a liter can of grass, which is added to the bath before bedtime. Kalanchoe juice has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect. It is necessary to pick a few sheets, peel, attach to the affected area, securing with a band-aid.

To remove pain in the intervertebral disc will help tinctures from St. John's wort, mullein, wormwood. They are used both for anesthesia and removal of the inflammatory process. It is advisable to use all these methods before bedtime.

Surgical treatments for protrusion

Surgical protrusion is treated in an advanced stage, when a hernia has already appeared. An operation is prescribed if there is a pronounced weakness in the arms and legs, the gait is disturbed. If there is squeezing of the roots, surgical procedures are carried out urgently. When the intervertebral disc has fallen in the neck area, then rear access is performed with the removal of the vertebral arches.

In recent years, laser treatment technology has proven itself well. They are affected by the core, which is becoming smaller. The intervertebral disc successfully takes the right place. This method is relevant if there is a threat of injury to the spinal cord or heart.

The proliferation of computers in the modern human environment has led to the fact that long pastime in a forced position negatively affects the health of the spinal column. A prolonged stay in a bent position, a violation of posture causes pain in the back and neck. The consequence of this is protrusion of the spinal disc.

Spinal disc protrusion is its bulging into the spinal canal, while the fibrous ring remains intact. Degenerative disc changes can lead to serious consequences for human health. Protrusion is divided into upper and lower.

The localization of pain depends on the location of the disc undergoing degeneration. A mechanical effect on a disc that extends beyond the vertebra leads to the appearance of acute pain of an intermittent nature. The most commonly diagnosed dorsal type of protrusion.

Dorsal (synonyms: posterior, dorsal) protrusion - an increase in the intervertebral disc in the posterior direction. This kind of pathology is the most dangerous, since there is a high risk of infringement of the ponytail - an extensive bundle of nerve endings.Most often, this danger arises when the first sacral and fifth lumbar disc are infringed - this is the dorsal protrusion L5-S1.

Dorsal disc protrusion is not considered an independent disease. This is one of the stages of osteochondrosis or the initial stage of development. Pathology most often appears in the lumbar or cervical spine, although it can occur in any segment. The intervertebral disc is designed for uniform compression of its vertebrae. Frequent convergence of adjacent vertebrae with each other leads to an asymmetric load on the intervertebral disc. Protrusion - squeezing a disc with an uneven load on the vertebrae.

CNS neuroinfection, including the spinal cord,

Inflammation or an allergic process that affects the spine,

Hereditary pathology of the formation of the spine,

Injuries and circulatory disorders of the spinal column and spinal cord.

The swelling of the disc is manifested by the following symptoms:

Acute pain radiating to the limb, on the shoulder, buttock,

Violation of the full work of internal organs.

At the first manifestation of symptoms, clarification of the diagnosis is required. Most often, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is performed for this. This method will allow to carry out differential diagnostics from other pathologies of the spine, to detect even minimal changes in the structure of intervertebral discs.

Two types of dorsal protrusion are diagnosed:

Both types of the disease have serious consequences, require complex diagnosis and long-term treatment.

Watch the video: Back Pain: Lumbar Disc Injury (January 2020).