Annual herb, with a single straight, branched stem height from 40 to 120 cm, dark green.
Wild fennel is found in the Himalayas, Iran, central and southwestern Asia, which is essentially its homeland.
Dill has long been grown throughout North Africa and Europe, it was used by Egyptian healers 5,000 years ago. Remains of dill were found in the ruins of Roman settlements in the UK. In medieval times, it was even believed that this fragile plant was a powerful protector against witchcraft. The Bible says that the Pharisees paid tithes from leaves, stalks, and fennel seeds.
Now dill, as a cultivated plant grows on all continents except Antarctica and Australia. It is quite common in Ukraine.
Use and application
In cooking, dill is used in the preparation of salads, added as a condiment to fish, meat, soups and sauces. Dill umbrellas are used in pickling and salting vegetables. It is also well suited for the fortification and aromatization of maja, vinegar, various cheeses, meat and bakery products. Dill has a very strong taste and aroma and therefore it can be used separately from other spices.
All sorts of extracts from seeds and dill are used to make various compositions in perfumery and cosmetology. Essential oils obtained from the seeds of dill, used in the manufacture of creams, colognes and toothpastes. This oil is also used in the canning, food, alcoholic beverage and also soap industries.
Selection and storage of dill
When choosing dill should pay attention to its leaves and stem. They should not be lethargic and should not have dark green stuck together leaves, and the end of the stem should be elastic. The presence of an unpleasant odor and yellowed leaves may indicate the freshening of fennel and the processes of rotting that have begun. Fresh dill can be stored for 2-3 days at room temperature with stems dipped in water and up to a week in the refrigerator in the department for vegetables. Dill greens can be prepared for the winter, for this it is simply dried in the open air, in the shade.
Botanical characteristics of dill
Dill is a fragrant plant with a straight stem that grows no higher than 120 cm. The stalk of dill, thin and branched, is colored dark green. The leaves of the plant are egg-shaped, depending on the location they have a different shape. For example, the lower leaves are long, located on broad petioles. The leaves, located at the top of the stem, are sedentary and vaginal. Dill flowers are collected in large umbrellas. Dill seeds are egg-shaped and oval.
This herb blooms from June to July. The plant is cultivated throughout Russia. Dill can be found and wild.
Dill is a cold-resistant crop, so its seeds will germinate at low temperature. The plant loves light and fertile soil. If you want to constantly have green dill, then harvest the seeds of various varieties of precociousness. Early varieties of dill sown in the winter. The soil for this is prepared in October: the beds are formed and fertilizers are applied. Seeds are sown in prepared grooves and covered with earth. If it's cold, make a mulch.
In spring dill seeds can be sown in the first days. The seeds are buried 2 cm deep and the soil is compacted on top. When 3 leaflets appear on the seedlings, it is possible to thin the plants. In order for seedlings to appear faster, it is necessary to constantly water the soil. When wet soil shoots appear 14 days after sowing the seeds. The rapid emergence of seedlings is facilitated by the soaking of seeds in wet gauze. Earlier than the seedlings of the plant, weeds appear, and they must be removed immediately, as they will not allow the dill to grow and develop.
There is one more way thanks to which shoots of a plant will appear in 10 days. To do this, you need to fill the seeds with water and keep them in water for three days, changing the water daily. After that, it is necessary to dry the seeds and sow in the soil.
Care for dill is easy. It is enough to regularly loosen the soil and remove weeds, and, if necessary, produce watering.
Dill responds well to fertilizing with potash and phosphate fertilizers. The plant can not be watered excessively, but the lack of moisture will have a bad effect on it.
Useful properties of dill
Dill has vasodilating, laxative, anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties. In addition, this plant is used as a good sedative and hypnotic. Dill improves appetite, strengthens the immune system and normalizes the functioning of the mammary glands. Decoction and infusion of dill have choleretic and sedative properties. An infusion made from the leaves of a plant helps to relieve inflammation and redness of the eyes. Dill is an excellent stimulator of gastric juice.
Dill lowers blood pressure, improves heart function, relieves headaches. The infusion of herbs relaxes the intestines, can increase diuresis. Newborns with tummy problems are recommended to take dill water.
Dill oil is indicated for shock and nervousness, as it has a calming effect. Dill essential oil has bactericidal and sedative properties. Dill oil is recommended for hiccups and poor appetite, it improves digestion. Women with menstrual disorders are also recommended to use dill oil.
Dill oil is used for abdominal pain, skin itching, gout, constipation, nerves and other ailments. It helps in the treatment of long-healing wounds, and also improves lactation in nursing mothers.
Traditional medicine uses dill in the form of tea, decoction, infusion of roots and leaves. Dill preparations are used to improve the appetite, with intestinal diseases, liver and abdominal pain. Dill is recommended for pyelonephritis, gastritis and diseases of the respiratory system. Dill infusion is used for hypertension, purulent wounds.
Dill for newborns. Take 1 tablespoon of dill seeds and cover them with a glass of boiling water. Cover the container with a lid and leave to infuse for a quarter of an hour. Having strained the finished water, it is given to the child 1 teaspoon 5 times a day. The same decoction can be used to treat diseases of the urinary system and inflammation of the airways.
Dill for bloating. Take 2 tablespoons of dill seeds and pour 200 ml of boiling water. Leave the composition for 2 hours to brew in a closed container. Having filtered the infusion, it is taken in a tablespoon three times a day 20-30 minutes before meals.
Dill for cystitis. To prepare this broth, you need to take dill herb in the amount of three tablespoons, chop it and pour 200 ml of boiling water. Put the composition in a water bath for 20 minutes. After removing from heat, leave the broth to infuse for 45 minutes. Take this medicine three times a day, 70 ml.
Dill with worms. Take 1 tablespoon of seeds and fill them with a glass of milk. We put on the fire for 5 minutes, then remove and cool for half an hour. Take a warm remedy for worms.
Contraindications to the use of dill
Contraindications to the use of dill is not available. People who have an increased acidity of the stomach, should use drugs from dill with caution.
Education: A diploma in medicine and treatment was obtained at the NI Pirogov University (2005 and 2006). Advanced training at the Department of Phytotherapy at the Moscow University of Peoples' Friendship (2008).
How to get seasoning dill
Parts used as seasoning: leaves, flowers, inflorescences (“umbrellas”).
The leaves are plucked fresh, usually after the plant has reached 8.5 cm in height.
Seeds are harvested when they are fully ripe and then air dried.
Essential oil is extracted from both fresh leaves and seeds, these two products are slightly different in smell and taste.
What is the smell and taste of dill
The taste of fresh dill is similar to the licorice flavor of soft cumin or fennel. With the latter, the plants are quite similar in appearance, they are often confused. The smell of dill leaves is similar to the smell of parsley and anise with notes of lemon.
Seeds are similar in taste to cumin, sweet, with citrus notes and slightly bitter. The aroma of seeds is more spicy, and to some it resembles camphor.
How to choose greens and dill seeds
Dill greens and seeds are available in city supermarkets all year round. Try to buy fresh twigs, because they are superior in taste and rich in many vital vitamins and antioxidants, unlike dried ones.
Look for bunches of fresh, strong, bright green stems and leaves, with no signs of wilting. Dill leaves are very airy and tender, therefore they wither easily and quickly turn yellow.
Seeds are often sold in the spices and condiments department. Good fennel seeds exude a pleasant, sweet and slightly peppery flavor when rubbed between fingers.
How to prepare dill for the winter and how much to store
At home, fresh dill is stored in a refrigerator in an open plastic bag or wrapped in a slightly damp paper towel. You need to spend it as early as possible, as it quickly loses the taste and nutrients. When fresh, it will last about a week.
Dill seeds are stored in a cool, dry, dark place inside airtight containers for many months. They can be ground using a hand mill as needed.
For long-term storage, fresh herbs are frozen, canned, and dried. The shelf life of frozen and dried dill - 2 years, seeds - 3 years.
How to freeze dill
Fresh dill sprigs can be frozen for up to two months, but be prepared for the fact that it will darken a little. It does not need to be thawed before use. Frozen dill retains more flavor than dried.
To freeze it, the branches are cut into small pieces, placed in an ice container, filled with water and put in the freezer.
How to make dill with salt for the winter
To prepare salted dill, fresh green leaves are washed, dried, finely chopped, placed in jars, sprinkled with salt, and compacted until juice appears (200 g of salt per 1 kg of dill).
Two days later, when the mass settles, the banks are supplemented with salted dill and covered with lids. Store in a dark, cool place.
Salting is not the best way to store, because the required degree of conservation is not achieved, and useful properties are lost.
How to dry dill
Dill greens, intended for drying, are cut and spread in a well ventilated place in a thin layer on a baking sheet. Dry five to six days. Turn over every 24 hours to ensure even drying.
In a special dehydrator (electric dryer for vegetables and fruits), the drying process will take less than a day. Simply place the leaves in one layer on each tray and follow the manufacturer's instructions.
You can also dry the dill in the oven. Preheat it to the lowest possible temperature. Spread the dill in one layer on the pan and place it in the oven. Check it every 30 minutes. Drying time can vary greatly depending on humidity.
Nutritional value of fresh dill (Anethum graveolens) per 100 g.
|Name||amount||Percentage of daily allowance,%|
|Energy value (calorie)||43 Kcal||2|
|Dietary fiber (fiber)||2.10 g||5,5|
|Pantothenic acid||0.397 mg||8|
|Vitamin A||7718 IU||257|
|Vitamin C||85 mg||140|
The health benefits of seeds and dill
Besides the fact that dill gives a strong, pungent, appetizing taste and aroma, it has many healing properties.
- This popular spicy herb does not contain cholesterol and is low in calories. Dill contains many antioxidants, vitamins - niacin, pyridoxine, etc., fiber, which helps control cholesterol levels in the blood.
- Leaves (twigs) and seeds contain many important essential oils, such as carvon, eugenol, limonene, terpinen and myristicin.
- Eugenol in dill is used as a local anesthetic and antiseptic. It has been found to lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
- Dill oil extracted from its seeds has antispasmodic, volatile, digestive, disinfectant, lactating and sedative properties.
- Dill is rich in many vital vitamins, including folic acid, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A and C, beta-carotene.
- Vitamin A and beta carotene are natural flavonoid antioxidants. In 100 g of dill branches there are 7718 IU or 257% of the recommended daily values of these substances. Vitamin A is necessary for the body to maintain a healthy mucous and skin, and is also necessary for good vision. Consuming natural foods rich in flavonoids helps prevent lung and oral cancer.
- Fresh dill is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin C. It helps the human body resist infectious agents and eliminate harmful, free radicals.
- Dill contains many minerals, such as copper, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron and magnesium. Copper is a cofactor for many vital enzymes, including cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase. Zinc is important for regulating growth and development, digestion and synthesis of nucleic acids. Potassium is a component of the cells and body fluids that control heart rhythm and blood pressure. The human body uses manganese as a cofactor for the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase.
Let's take a closer look at the healthy properties of dill.
Top 15 medicinal properties of dill
Here is a list of the medicinal properties of dill:
- Promotes digestion. Dill itself is an appetizing spice and, therefore, is widely used in culinary. The essential oils present in it activate the secretion of bile and digestive juices. They also stimulate the peristaltic movement of the intestines, treat constipation.
- Prevents insomnia. The essential oils found in dill both stimulate and soothe and pacify. Flavonoids and vitamin B complex increase the secretion of certain enzymes and hormones, which have a calming and hypnotic effect, thereby helping people to sleep well.
- Maintains bone health. Calcium in the composition of dill - an important element that protects against bone loss and density. Osteoporosis affects millions of people every year, and calcium, along with other important minerals, is a key component of proper growth, development and repair of damaged bones.
- Helps with type 2 diabetes. Dill has long been associated with the regulation of insulin levels. Although research in this area is somewhat limited, especially for people, experiments have shown that it reduces fluctuations in lipids and insulin in diabetes caused by corticosteroids.
- Eliminates excess gas formation. Dill helps prevent embarrassing excess gas in the body.
- Increases immunity. Dill has long been associated with antimicrobial activity. It has been proven that it prevents a number of microbial infections in the body.
- Soothes her hiccups. Hiccups occur for various reasons, but mainly because of the swallowed air and its repeated ascending movement through the esophagus. The second reason is associated with certain allergies, hypersensitivity, hyperactivity and nervous deficiency. Dill is useful in both situations. It displaces and also reduces the formation of gas. And as a sedative, eliminates hiccups due to allergies, hyperactivity or nervous disorders.
- Treats diarrhea. Diarrhea is mainly caused by two things - dyspepsia and microbial action. As for indigestion, dill can be very useful, as it has very good digestive properties. Secondly, dill helps with monoterpenes and flavonoids present in its essential oils, which are bactericidal in nature. They treat diarrhea by suppressing microbial infections that attempt to attack the body.
- Treats dysentery. Dysentery is primarily caused by fungal infections. Dill essential oil disinfects and effectively inhibits them.
- Relieves arthritis pain. Dill has long been known as an anti-inflammatory herb, which means that it reduces inflammation and the pain associated with these diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, gout and arthritis).
- Stimulates menstruation. Flavonoids in dill essential oil have stimulating properties and stimulate the secretion of certain hormones that support a proper menstrual cycle in women.
- Treats respiratory diseases. Kempferol and some other components of flavonoids and monoterpenes in dill essential oils are antihistamine in nature. They clear accumulations in the respiratory system due to histamines, allergies or cough.
- It takes care of the oral cavity. Dill seeds and leaves are good mouth and breath fresheners. Essential oils are endowed with bactericidal, antioxidant and disinfectant properties. Because of this, they help stop the growth of microbial infections in the mouth, and antioxidants minimize damage to the gums and teeth caused by free radicals.
- Prevents cancer. Monoperpenes in the composition are chemopreventive, they activate the secretion of an enzyme called glutathione-S-transferase (GST), which is very effective in neutralizing carcinogens. Thus, dill protects the body from cancer. Other antioxidants in its essential oils also contribute to the prevention of malignant neoplasms.
- Other healing properties. Dill has relaxing properties, it increases the power of urination to remove toxins, excess salt and water from the body. He also has a carminative effect (removes excess gas), antispasmodic (prevents cramps). It stimulates lactation and endocrine secretions, increases libido due to the presence of arginine.
Dill was a good galactogogue (a means of increasing the amount of breast milk). In addition to increasing milk secretion, it supports the digestive health of babies. Milk of a nursing mother who consumes dill helps prevent digestive disorders (dyspepsia, flatulence) in babies.
Contraindications (harm) and side effects of dill
Dill is completely safe when consumed as seasoning and, possibly, can be harmful to health, if it is taken uncontrolled by mouth for treatment with “folk remedies”.
Special precautions and warnings:
- In pregnancy, dill in moderate quantities is safe to use if there are no individual contraindications. In large doses, its seeds can cause menstruation, and this can lead to miscarriage.
- There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking dill as a medicine for breastfeeding and in young children.
Dill can cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to plants from the same family. These include asafoetida, cumin, celery, coriander and fennel.
Dill extract can reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of hypoglycemia if you have this disease.
If you have surgery, stop taking dill two weeks before the planned operation.
The use of greens and dill seeds in cooking
Like chervil, the subtle aroma of dill works particularly well with eggs and salads.
Fresh herbs are thoroughly washed in water to remove sand and dirt and get rid of residual pesticides. To preserve the flavor and aroma, dill is usually added at the end of cooking.
Conversely, the seeds require long-term heat treatment, they emit an intense smell when heated, so they are put in the initial stages.
1 tablespoon of chopped fresh dill equals 1 teaspoon dried (this is 3 grams).
Here are some ideas for adding seeds, twigs and umbrellas of dill.
- Greens are great for fish, seafood, meat, new potatoes and vegetables.
- Whole seeds are added to broths and stews, usually for 1 liter - 1 tsp.
- Ground fruits - in a mixture for baking bread.
- Umbrellas are put in soups, vegetable stews, mushroom dishes, and also used in pickling and pickling cucumbers.
- They also combine well with bay leaf, allspice and mustard seeds in marinades.
- Dill seeds are excellent when used in sour dishes, including pickled beets, carrots and even fish.
- Fresh dill goes well with many root vegetables, such as potatoes, carrots and parsnips.
How to replace dill in recipes
Due to differences in the taste of the seeds and leaves of dill, the idea of replacing one with the other in recipes is not the most successful. However, in a pinch, this is possible. Keep in mind that you will have to use a different amount of seasoning when replacing. Three tablespoons of chopped fresh dill sprigs are roughly equivalent to one tablespoon of seeds.
Also consider that the seeds need more preparation time than the leaves. This means that if you put greens instead of fruits, it is better to do this by the end of cooking time, and not at the beginning.
Despite the fact that fennel has unique smells and tastes, in some recipes it can be replaced by other herbs if used correctly.
- Tarragon It has a similar aroma, similar to the scent of anise. To replace it, take it in a one-to-one ratio. Unlike dill, tarragon can withstand long-term heat treatment, so it is used in stews, sauces and soups. Read more about it here.
- Fennel It has the same feathery leaves, although the stems are much thicker. It can be used in many recipes that require dill leaves. Fennel has a soft and sweet taste with licorice notes, so it will complement well any dish that needs dill. Read about it here.
- Thyme This replacement is preferable in stews. Thyme belongs to the mint family, withstands long cooking time. Dill can be replaced with thyme in salad dressings and marinades. To get the most out of it, add this alternative at the beginning of the cooking process.
There has been a lot of scientific research on the beneficial properties of dill, and it has proven to be effective in treating many diseases, but there were also contraindications that must be taken into account. The great thing is that this spice is easy to use in cooking. Add dill to your daily diet in order to feel the full benefits of this wonderful herb.
The composition and availability of nutrients
Dill leaves contain nicotinic and ascorbic acids, riboflavin, thiamine, carotene, pectin, carbohydrates, flavonoids, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamins A, B2, B6, C, PP. Dill fruits have a high content of proteins and fatty oil; fatty oil consists of oleic, palmetinic and linoleic acid. All parts of the plant contain an essential oil, which gives it a peculiar smell, and flaponoids.
Useful and healing properties
Due to the presence of magnesium and iron salts in dill in a well-digestible form, blood formation processes are greatly enhanced. Essential oil promotes better formation of bile, digestive enzymes, urine, and also provides disinfection to the body, especially in the urogenital and digestive systems.
Dill should be used to improve lactation and diuresis, with problems with the respiratory system, high blood pressure, to improve vision. Infusion of the leaves is also used in hypertension, as an antispasmodic and diuretic and sedative.
Dill is an excellent analgesic for ulcers (in particular duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer), cholecystitis and other abdominal cavity diseases.
Dill seeds are used to make tinctures, stimulate the appetite and improve digestion, promoting the treatment of insomnia and kidney inflammation. For the manufacture of this infusion, you need 2 teaspoons of chopped dill seeds, pour boiling water (2 cups) and strain after 10 minutes. Drink a glass a day.
With a variety of colitis and to improve the secretion of lactating milk, you need to take the powder obtained from the seeds of dill 1 gr. three times a day, preferably 30 minutes before meals. When lowering the intestinal tone, especially in older people use the following decoction: you need to take juniper berries and dill seeds in equal proportions, grind them to a state of powder, add chopped aloe leaf, its amount should be no more than a quarter of the total. Then a tablespoon of such a mixture is poured with boiling water (1 cup) and infused. Take preferably a tablespoon three times a day 30 minutes before meals. If there is swelling under the eyes, then they can be easily removed by applying gauze tampons soaked in dill leaves infusion to the eyes.
Dill oil is used for bronchitis and pneumonia, because it contributes to a better and faster separation of mucus from the walls of the bronchi. Also, the infusion of seeds is used as an antihemorrhoidal agent, as an external wound healing, eliminates allergic itching of the skin.
Dangerous properties of dill
It is not advisable to eat dill and be treated with drugs containing it, people with low blood pressure and individual intolerance.
If you use excessive dill, it can cause temporary visual impairment, dizziness, fatigue. Also in large quantities dill is harmful to pregnant women.
The story of dill in the transfer of "Garden and Kitchen". A lot of interesting, learn more about its useful properties and the intricacies of growing.
Dill - description, cultivation, useful properties
Dill (Anethum) - monotypic genus of annual herbaceous plants of the umbrella family (Umbelliferae) containing a single species - Dill odorous, or Dill garden (Anethum graveolens). In its wild form, dill is found in southwestern and central Asia. As a garden plant, dill is widespread throughout the world.
Latin name of the plant Anethum graveolens comes from the romanized Greek name for dill - anethon and from latin graveolens - strongly smelling. The homeland of dill is considered to be Southern Europe, Egypt, Asia Minor, where it has been known since ancient times.
Dill names in the world
Americans in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries before long church services gave their children to chew dill seed so that they would not fall asleep - at least that is how some linguists explain one of the American names for dill seed meetinseeds - “seeds for gathering”.
However, this version is refuted by another English (as well as German, Norwegian and Swedish) name of dill dill, which is often associated with the Old Norse word dilla - “tranquility, pacification”.
Dill has also long been used to relieve gas-induced pain in babies, so perhaps the puritans gave their “seeds for gathering” to their children for completely different reasons.
There is another, the simplest version of the origin of the word dill - from the German Dolde - umbrella (inflorescence).
But the Russian word fennel is most likely due to the fact that in Russia its leaves were usually very finely cut and “sprinkled” their food before serving. Max Vasmer, author of the Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language, connects him with the word sprinkle, and Dahl in his dictionary cites such an ancient Russian meaning of the word dill as “a church vessel in which holy water is kept” (and then ).
In addition, “dill” in the south of Russia was called boiling water and hot water, so “pouring dill on a piglet” meant to scald it for cleaning, by the way, in the Pskov region “dill” was once even called a kettle.
In the people, dill is still called differently - koper, kopor, creep, sprinkle, hoarse, dehydration, timon, tsap.
History of dill
Strangely enough, but for some unknown reason, almost all the famous ancient physicians, including the great Avicenna, considered excessive and prolonged use of dill harmful to the brain and argued that large doses of it cause visual impairment, perhaps because of some medieval witches not only used the plant as a remedy for the evil eye, but also added almost all the love potions.
Surprisingly, the seeds, leaves, stalks and inflorescences of dill in Europe were added to sauces, pickles, pickles and fermentation only after the 16th century. Most likely, the prejudice was based on the side effect of dill. His large doses lower blood pressure, which can cause a hypotonic condition, manifested as fainting, temporary visual impairment and even a general breakdown. In order to eliminate the negative effects of ancient physicians recommended taking dill with honey, cloves or cinnamon. However, sly Europeans, who got acquainted with dill almost simultaneously with strong alcoholic drinks, learned how to use its beneficial properties with the “withdrawal syndrome”, that is, with a trivial hangover.
You might also notice that the cucumber pickle, well infused with dill, perfectly helps “after yesterday”? Here you have the reason for the wide popularity of English dill pickles - pickled cucumbers, served worldwide to smoked and salted fish, cold meats, as well as hamburgers and corned beef. Even one of the German names of dill Gurkenkraut (literally: “cucumber herb”) clearly indicates his involvement in the brine - salted and pickled cucumbers have long been loved in Germany. In the end, and we are not inferior to the “Busurmans” in the ability to pickle cucumbers.
Dill is an annual herb of the Umbrella or Celery family, 40–120 cm tall. upper sessile on vagina, smaller, filiform, less dissected. The inflorescence is located on the tops of the stems in the form of a complex umbrella up to 15 cm in diameter. Fruit - ovate or broadly grayish-brown two-seedy, blooms in June-July.
Features of growing dill
For greens, seeds are sown in small batches in 10-15 days. At the age of 25-30 days, when the plants reach a height of 10-15 cm, they are used for food. For spices, dill is grown 55-60 days (before flowering and the beginning of the formation of seeds: at this time they are most fragrant).
Top seedling of dill is possible, since germination of seeds begins already at a temperature of 3 o C, and plant growth at 5-8 o C. However, the most favorable for plant development is considered to be 16-17 o C.
Despite its undemanding to growing conditions, dill needs irrigation and organic fertilizers for winter treatment (6 kg per 1 m 2), as well as nitrogen (20 g), phosphate (30 g) and potash (20 g per 1 m 2).
Preparing the soil for dill - like a radish. For sowing the greenery between the rows should be 15 cm, and for spices - after 45 cm. The seeds are buried to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. Shoots appear on day 14. If the seeds before sowing wet for 2-3 days, then they germinate faster, while you need to change the water every day. For spices can be applied spreading dill in vegetable crops. In this case, when weeding, you must leave the right amount of plants.
Medicinal raw materials
The official medicinal raw materials are the fruits of dill. In folk medicine and nutrition, grass is used. Fruits are ripe, dried, split into two parts visloplodies, elliptical, with a groove. The length of the fruit is 3-5, the thickness is 2-3 mm. On the outside of the fruit, there are five ribs: the extreme ones are elongated in wide wings, green-gray in color, with a characteristic fragrant smell and spicy taste.
Dill is harvested when 60–70% of the seeds in the umbrellas reach a brown color. Cleaning is carried out in a separate way. The mowed plants are knitted in bunches, suspended in a dry room for drying, after drying they are picked and threshed with a combine to separate the fruits.
To obtain the essential oil, dill is harvested in the milky wax ripeness phase of seeds in the central umbrella of the inflorescence. Plants are mowed at a height of 18–20 cm from the surface of the soil and freshly processed by the method of hydrodistillation.
Dill for greens is harvested in June-July (in the afternoon, when there is no dew). Plants pull out, shake off the ground, knit in bunches. Green mass is dried in special rooms that are well ventilated. Keep the grass in a sealed container. Flowering grass harvested in July and used in traditional medicine.
Biologically active substances
According to the pharmacognostic classification, the fruits of dill are raw materials containing furanochromones - visnagin and kellin.
Also, the fruits of dill are rich in essential and fatty oils. The main components of the essential oil is carvon (40–60%) and anethole (up to 50%). Dill fruits also contain other components: terpenoids dillapiol (19–40%), dihydrocarvone, carveol, dihydrocarveol, isoevgenol.
Fatty oil contains up to 93% of glycerides of fatty acids, among which linoleic, palmitic, oleic, petroselic. Coumarins, phenolcarboxylic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic), flavonoids, wax, gums, protein (14–15%), nitrogenous substances, cellulose were found in the fruits.
Dill herb contains 0.56–1.5% of essential oil with a lower carvone content (up to 16%) compared to fruit oil. It contains vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, P, provitamin A, salts of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, folic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol).
Pharmacological properties of dill and use in medicine
Infusion of dill has a spasmolytic effect on the intestines, reduces its motility, increases diuresis.
Dill seed is used as an infusion with metiorism and as an expectorant. A tablespoon of seed is poured with a glass of boiling water, infused for 10-15 minutes, filtered, taken orally by a tablespoon 3-6 times a day 15 minutes before meals.
Contraindicated in the pronounced phenomena of circulatory failure.
Often, dill seed is taken as a light diuretic.
In the treatment of dill is recommended to take a break after 5-6 days for 2-3 days.
The use of dill in the economy
Dill is widely used as a seasoning. Its leaves are added to salads, soups, sauces, gravies, meat, fish, vegetable and mushroom dishes. For conservation take dill with tops, that is, flowering umbrellas. A sprig of dill during the flowering aromatize vinegar. Greens are dried to combine with other herbs in order to obtain spice mixtures.
When boiled, green dill loses its flavor, and it is put into ready-made soup, steamed vegetables, fish and meat salads. It goes well with milk soups and sauces. It gives a unique flavor to new potatoes, boiled beans, savory taste of cheese, cottage cheese, scrambled eggs, improves the taste of fried potatoes, boiled red cabbage.
Dill seeds flavor tea, vinegar, pickles. (Especially good at handling fish.)
Dill is used to prepare dill oil used in home cooking and confectionery production.
Essential oil is used in the soap industry.
Pests and Dill Disease
Here we look at the most common diseases and pests of dill.
Fusarium root of dill - the disease is widespread in open ground on heavy soils with stagnant water. The fungus infects the root system, through the vessels of plants penetrates the stem. The plant initially initially lags behind in growth, then turns red, grows brown and dries out. The infection is stored in the soil on plant residues and in seeds that have been collected from a diseased plant. But more often infected plants die for a long time before the seeds ripen.
- Removal of plant residues.
- Culling affected plants.
- The cultivation of heavy soils, i.e. introduction of organic matter (compost, peat, rotted manure).
Wet Dill Rot - the appearance of the disease is noticeable on the yellowing, rotting leaves. Most often the disease is transmitted to the leaves from the infected root. The source of infection is plant residues in the soil or infected seeds. Dark watery stains appear on the roots of dill, the tissues soften, rot, and an unpleasant smell appears.
- Same as against fusarium rot.
Fomoz dill - the disease manifests itself on stalks, leaves, umbrellas, seeds, dark elongated spots with numerous black dotted pycnidia. Characterized by infection of the roots with the subsequent spread to the stem. With increased humidity, summer sporulation develops, and spores re-infect the neighboring plant. The infection persists in the soil on plant debris and infected seeds.
Carrot gallitsa - small insect with one pair of wings. It occurs everywhere, causing the formation of round galls in the form of a thickening of the base of the entire inflorescence of dill or one of its rays. Inside the gall, the orange-colored larva lives and feeds, and there, inside the gall, it pupates.
- Cut and destroy all dill and gall inflorescences.
Caraway Mole - butterflies of various colors: the front wings are brownish or pinkish with dark strokes and white or black specks, - the rear ones are monoton-gray. Wingspan - 21-30 mm. Caterpillars are dark gray or blue-black. Butterflies winter in rooms, in early June they lay eggs on umbrella plants, the larvae make passages in the leaves, undermine the central veins, bite into the stems. At an older age, go to the inflorescences, which are entwined with cobwebs, roughly eat flowers and ovaries of seeds. In July, the caterpillars gnaw through cavities in the stems and pupate there. For a season one generation develops.
- Pruning and destruction of all dill inflorescences with caterpillars.
Links to material:
- Gardener and gardener of Siberia: Krasnoyarsk: RIMP “Vita”, 1994 - 496 p. - with. 441.
- Turov. A. D., Sapozhnikova. E. N. / Medicinal plants of the USSR and their application. - 3rd ed., Pererab. and add. - M .: Medicine, 1982, 304 p. - with. 171-172.
- Traivas. L. Yu. Protection of the garden. Disease, pest, errors in agricultural technology. - M .: “Kladez-Buks”, 2007 - 123 p. - with. 143-144.
Brief description of cultivation
- Landing. Dill seeds should be sown in open soil at the beginning of spring, then it can be sown every 15 days. If the dill is grown in room conditions, then you can sow it at any time. Sprouts fennel seeds are sown on seedlings in March, and transplanted into open soil after 4 weeks with a little.
- Illumination. Shaded or sunny plot.
- Priming. Well-fertilized friable neutral soil.
- Watering. It is necessary to water frequently, on hot days, 2 times a day, while 2–3 buckets of water are taken per 1 square meter of land.
- Fertilizer. If dill is grown in pre-fertilized soil, it does not need to be fed. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers must be applied to depleted soil; for this, fermented nettle extract is used.
- Breeding. Generative (seed) method.
- Harmful insects. Umbrella blind men, Italian bugs (striped shieldfish), carrot listoblushki and flies, melons, willow-carrot and carrot aphid.
- Diseases. Black leg, powdery mildew, fusarium, fomoz, chalcosporosis and rust.
Dill is a herbaceous plant with a powerful spicy aroma. The height of a single straight stalk varies from 0.4 to 1.5 m, its dark green surface is thinly grooved. The shape of the leaf plates is ovoid, they are cut into 3 or 4 parts, the segments of the last order are linear-filiform or bristle. Umbrellas, reaching 20–90 mm in diameter, consist of yellow flowers, and they are collected in umbrella inflorescences with a diameter of 15–20 centimeters. The fruit is a visloplodar. The shape of the seeds is ovoid or broadly elliptic, they have a length of up to 0.5 cm, and a thickness of up to 0.35 cm. Flowering begins in June or July, and fruit ripen from July to September.
What time to sow
The first time to sow seeds in open soil should be in the early spring period. In order for fresh green dill to be on the table both in spring and summer, and in the fall, gardeners often resort to the conveyor method of sowing, while sowing seeds should be done once every 10–12 days from the beginning of spring to the last days of August.
If dill seeding is planned for spring, then it will be necessary to start preparing the site in autumn. However, organic fertilizer (manure) is best applied under the predecessors of dill, and not under this crop. At the same time, the best predecessors of dill are beets, legumes, cabbage and cucumbers. Those plots where representatives of the Umbrella family (parsley, fennel, carrots, cumin and parsnip) were grown before are not suitable for growing dill. This culture is not recommended to grow next to parsley or carrots. It is best to grow garlic and dill nearby. Also, dill grows well next to potatoes.
In early spring, before sowing seeds, the soil should be loosened with a rake, while it should be added 15-20 grams of potassium salt, the same amount of urea and 20-30 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter.
The seed needs preplant preparation, for this it needs 3-4 hours to fill with water, during this time it needs to be replaced several times, this will remove from the seed substances that help slow down their germination. Then the seed is kept for a couple of hours in a solution of strong manganese potassium. After that, it must be thoroughly washed and dried. Then the seeds are sown in grooves, the depth of which should be about 20 mm, while the distance between them should be from 15 to 20 centimeters. It is necessary to distribute the seeds in the groove in such a way that the distance between them is from 10 to 20 mm, then the seeds need to be sealed and the bed to be watered.
Seed germination is observed at a temperature of 5 degrees, in order for seedlings to appear as soon as possible, the surface of the site should be covered with agrospanum. The first shoots should appear after 7-14 days.
Room care rules
Dense seedlings must necessarily be thinned, as this plant reacts extremely negatively to cramping. It is best to have a distance of between 20 and 30 mm between the plants. The room should be cool, as the seedlings can stretch out in the warmth. After the seedlings seem, the temperature in the room should be reduced by 2 degrees for 7 days. To do this, seedlings can be transferred to a heated balcony. When it takes 7 days, the temperature must be increased to 15-18 degrees. This temperature is optimal for growing dill. At a time when nights are longer than days, this plant grown on a windowsill should be supplemented with additional lighting. To do this, a fluorescent lamp with a capacity of 40–80 W at a distance of about 0.6 m is installed above the dill tank. Seedlings should be repaired in the early morning for 5–6 hours.
How to water
Since this culture reacts extremely negatively to chlorine, water used for irrigation is separated for 24 hours, it should be at room temperature or slightly warmer. But it is best to water the plant with water passed through a magnet or thawed. It should be noted that the substrate in the tank should be constantly loose and slightly damp. We can not allow water to stagnate in the soil mixture, because of this can develop a black leg. Such a plant grown under room conditions should be regularly moistened with a spray bottle, especially if the container with dill is located next to the heater.
Fertilizing plants carried out 1 time in 2 weeks, for this use a solution of complex mineral fertilizers (for example, Rainbow or Ideal) in a low concentration. Remember that if you apply too much fertilizer to the substrate, the young dill will die. Before starting to feed, the seedlings are watered, and after it they are recommended to be sprayed with clean water, this will prevent the appearance of burns on the leaf plates. Also for dill fertilizer can be used and foliar feeding, but in this case, the concentration of the nutrient solution should be very, very weak.
Top dressing dill
Bushes feed up the nitrogen-containing fertilizer, however, remember that they can accumulate nitrates, in this regard, as a fertilizer is best to use infusion of nettle fermented for 5 days. Such a fertilizer will not only saturate the plant with nitrogen, but also destroy aphids. It is not recommended to use insecticidal preparations for the treatment of dill, especially when there is less than 15 days left before the harvest.
If necessary, from 1 to 10 grams of potash phosphate fertilizer is applied to 1 square meter of land.
How and when to pick dill seeds
After the seeds have dried, they will look like flat discs of brown color, and they can be very easily separated from the umbrella. When this happens, they can be collected. They remain viable for 3 or 4 years. When the seeds are collected, they should be laid out for drying in a well-ventilated dry room, they should be completely dry.
What can be grown after dill
The bed on which dill was growing is suitable for growing crops such as: garlic, peas, tomatoes, onions, beans and potatoes. Such a plot is not suitable for growing representatives of the Umbrella family (Celery), as they have common harmful insects and diseases. It is possible to sow such plants on this site, as well as dill will be possible only after 4 or 5 years.
In young bushes with a black leg, the root neck is affected, and because of this, it becomes black, softens, becomes thin and rots. The seedlings fall and then dry. As a rule, they become ill due to violations of the rules of care, for example, due to excessive watering, stagnant air, sudden changes in temperature, lack of light, or when grown in a shaded place. As soon as the first symptoms of the disease are noticed, the bushes should be sprayed with a Fundazol solution.
Due to downy mildew (perinospora), chlorotic spots appear on the aerial parts of the bush, which gradually turn brown, and a well-visible dirty purple on the bottom surface forms.At the first symptoms of the disease, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) or copper oxychloride (40 grams per 1 bucket of water).
With the defeat of fomozom on shoots, foliage and inflorescences specks of brown color are formed, also the root system suffers from it, on the surface of which dark stripes appear, which are arranged in rows. For the purpose of prophylaxis, it is necessary to warm up the seed for 30 minutes before sowing. in hot water, then it is immediately immersed in cold water, after which it should be dried to a flowable state. Sick bushes need to be treated with Bordeaux mixture solution (1%). If necessary, dill can be sprayed with this mixture several times with a break of 10-12 days. However, the last time the bushes need to be processed no later than a fortnight before harvest. Before you eat or process such dill, the herbs should be thoroughly washed in running water.
When the plant is ill with chalcosporosis, brown-yellow dirty spots appear on the surface of inflorescences and shoots, reaching 0.6 centimeters in diameter, as the disease progresses, their middle becomes pale, while the edge remains dark brown. In order to get rid of this disease, for treatment it is necessary to use the same means as when spraying the bushes from fomoz.
The development of fusarium wilt is observed in the bushes during the formation of 3–4 true leaf plates. Chlorotic specks form on the surface of plants, then they droop. The disease develops quickly when the ground overheats, the water stagnates in it, or when the root system is injured during loosening. The bushes can be cured only at an early stage of the development of the disease, while using a solution of a fungicide drug for spraying. Strongly affected bushes must be torn out and destroyed. In order to prevent the need to adhere to the rules of crop rotation of dill, and for cultivation choose those varieties that are resistant to fusarium wilt.
With the defeat of fennel rust in the first summer weeks on the underside of the foliage, petioles and shoots are formed brownish-yellow pillows. For the purpose of prophylaxis, before sowing, the seed must be heated in water heated to 50 degrees, then they should immediately be immersed in cold water, after which it should be dried. Sick bushes will need several treatments with a break of 10–12 days; for this, a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) is used. The last time the seedlings need to be processed no later than 2 weeks before harvest. Before processing or eating greens should be thoroughly washed in running water.
The carrot fly injures the above-ground part of the bush, because of which it has a lag in development, while the foliage at the beginning turns purple-red, after which it becomes yellow and dries out. Most often, the pests settle on those dill bushes that are next to the bed with carrots, because such a pest is attracted by the aroma of carrot tops. To protect bushes from such a fly, the surface of the earth along the rows should be covered with a layer of a mixture consisting of sand, to which mustard powder, dry peat, hot pepper or wood ash is added. If, nevertheless, a carrot fly has appeared, the plants should be treated with the following means: Arrivo, Vanteks or Karate Zeon. In this case, the bushes need to be sprayed no later than a half month before harvest.
Umbrella blind men are small bugs that affect all members of the celery family, both wild and cultural. Such a pest feeds on the sap of the plant, which it sucks from foliage, umbrellas and stems, this leads to the death of greenery. On those beds where there are blind, the yield of bushes is reduced by 30-40 percent. To get rid of such pests, the bushes need to be sprayed with Fitoverma or Aktellika.
Italian blind people behave in exactly the same way as umbrella blind people, and harm in the same way. During one season in warm terrain such pests can produce 2 generations. But such a bug can greatly harm dill only if the garden has a large number of individuals. In these cases, the bushes need to be sprayed with a solution of Aktellik or Fitoverma.
Dill can harm 3 types of aphids: willow-carrot, carrot and melon. They all feed on sap, which is sucked from aboveground parts of bushes, as a result they have a lag in growth, deformation, wrinkling, yellowing and drying. It should be remembered that such a pest is the main carrier of viral and bacterial diseases, which today are considered incurable. To begin with, pests are removed from the bushes with a powerful stream of water, then foliar dressing is carried out using a solution of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. 1 bucket of water should be combined with 3 kilograms of wood ash, when the mixture is infused for 24 hours, 1 large spoonful of liquid soap should be dissolved in it, then it should be drained and used to spray the bushes. After 7 days, the mixture from the surface of the plants should be washed off with clean water.
All varieties of dill specialists are distinguished by the length, width and shape of the segments of the leaf plates, the shape of the rosette, and the degree of dissection and color of foliage. Inexperienced gardeners most often are guided by the following sign - the beginning of the formation of stems, according to it the varieties are divided into early-ripening, mid-ripening and late-ripening.
Early ripe varieties
- Gribovsky. This fruit variety is distinguished by undemanding in care. It can be grown in open soil and in room conditions. Such a fragrant variety has a very high resistance to diseases. The height of the bushes about 25 centimeters.
- Further. This variety has a high yield and lodging resistance. Such dill is grown for freezing, food, it is dried and used for the preparation of pickles and marinades. The formation of the outlet occurs 38–40 days after the seedlings seem. On the surface of the green leaf plates there is not a very large wax coating.
- Aurora. Such a productive variety appeared relatively recently, it is resistant to harmful insects and diseases, and ripens after 25 days. The powerful bush has a magnificent rosette and closely spaced internodes, rich green fragrant foliage is very juicy.
- Grenadier. The ripening of such a bush variety occurs within 35–40 days from the moment the seedlings appear. The bushes in the development phase of 3 or 4 leaf plates have the greatest fragrant.
- Umbrella. This variety also appeared not so long ago, its ripening period is the same as that of the Gribovsky variety. Experts recommend that this variety is used for growing in a greenhouse.
- Ambrella. The bush has thick branches and long leafy plates; such greens are eaten both fresh and used as a spice.
- Borey. This shrub variety is fragrant and yields. The height of the semi-raised rosettes is about 36 centimeters; they are composed of large leafy plates of green color with a gray tint. Bushes ripen in 40–60 days from the moment of sowing, and seed ripening occurs after 65–105 days.
- Richelieu. This variety is decorative and is resistant to diseases. Large sockets consist of fragrant beautiful lacy leaf plates of greenish-blue color that have long lobes. During flowering shoots have the largest amount of foliage.
- Kibray. This variety has a high yield and resistance to powdery mildew. It can be cultivated both in the greenhouse and in the open soil. Greens ripen no more than 45 days after the seedlings appeared, and seed ripening occurs after 70 days. Greenish juicy and fragrant foliage is very delicate.
- Alligator. The shrub variety has leafy plates that are elevated above the ground surface, which is very convenient during harvest. The ripening of greens occurs at 42–45 days after the seedlings seem to be, but cutting the greens for food can be done earlier.
- Lesnogorodsky. This variety, distinguished by its high yield and disease resistance, has one peculiarity, for example, on the bushes in autumn, when foliage seeds ripen, they are still fragrant, large and green, and at the same time they contain a large amount of provitamin A and vitamin C .
Late ripening varieties
- Salute. Such a shrub variety is distinguished by its productivity, the bushes reach a height of about one and a half meters, and they ripen in 35–45 days. The leaf stem is very strong. Very fragrant foliage of a dark green color with a gray shade, it is big and gentle. This variety is valuable because the foliage after cutting grows very quickly, and umbrellas are formed slowly.
- Buyan. The variety is resistant to diseases, it is grown in open soil through seedlings. In succulent bushes shoots for a long time do not become rough, while on the surface of fragrant foliage there is a strong wax coating.
- Frost. Variety, characterized by yield, is used for preservation and freezing, as well as for eating fresh. Strongly leafy plants have large umbrellas and a raised rosette consisting of long green-gray gray-cut leaf plates, on the surface of which there is a wax coating.
- The mischievous. The fragrant variety, characterized by yield, has a green-gray foliage, on the surface of which there is a wax coating. Most often, greens are used to eat fresh, but it can also be used as a spice for dishes.
- Kutuzovsky. This variety ripens in 41–44 days after seedlings appear. Delicate fragrant and large foliage is painted in greenish color, it reaches about 20 centimeters in length, it is cut into filamentous segments. Bushes are strong. They are grown for drying, freezing, as a spice and for the preparation of brine and pickles.