Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix of the cecum. It proceeds in 4 stages - catarrhal, phlegmonous, gangrenous and perforative. Drug treatment is possible only at the beginning of the development of the disease. Starting from the second stage, and sometimes even when the first one is detected, the patient is undergoing appendectomy (surgical removal of an inflamed appendix).
In order not to miss the onset of the disease, it is necessary to know how to determine appendicitis at home. In a pregnant woman, the symptoms may appear differently, since the appendix is shifted by an enlarged uterus. The standard clinical picture may develop in the early stages, when the uterus is not large enough to cause a displacement of the internal organs.
Possible symptoms and signs
To independently determine the beginning of inflammation, you need to know the features of the pathology. Attention should be paid to the following:
- The area of the pain. Initially, the patient complains of pain in the abdomen, but can not determine a clear location of its location. Most often, these are areas of epigastrium and a zone near the navel. For the next few hours, the pain moves to the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. This symptom indicates the involvement in the pathological process of the tissues of the parietal peritoneum. The pain is aggravated by a deep breath, laughter or cough.
- The man cannot hold his back in a straight position. The reason for this is severe pain, forcing him to take the position of the embryo: lying on its side, pulling his legs to his stomach.
- Attacks of nausea, ending in vomiting. This symptom is characteristic of food poisoning. But if, in case of poisoning, vomiting ends after the stomach is completely released, then with appendicitis, nausea and vomiting persist for a long period. In children, vomiting can be single, in the elderly this symptom is absent.
- Increased body temperature. For the development of inflammation of the appendix is characterized by an increase in body temperature to 38 degrees. In young children, it can reach 40 degrees. If such an indicator is fixed in an adult, then there is a risk of peritonitis.
- Disorders of the chair. In adult patients, no serious violations in the composition of the fecal masses are observed. But children have diarrhea. In this case, pain in the abdomen does not pass.
- Dry mouth mucous membranes. With the development of inflammation of the appendix, dry mouth is its main feature.
- Impaired urination Appendicitis may be accompanied by pain when attempting to empty the bladder.
Cough and runny nose - atypical symptoms of inflammation of the appendix. Most often accompany pathology in childhood, making it difficult to make a diagnosis. Since the clinical picture of a child may not correspond to the classic manifestations of appendicitis, it is recommended to take him to the hospital when abdominal pain appears.
It is possible to diagnose appendicitis at home by developing characteristic syndromes. There are four of them. To determine the inflammation used:
- Kocher syndrome. For him, a redistribution of pain is typical: from the epigastric zone, it moves to the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.
- Mendel syndrome. With easy tapping with the tips of the fingers on the anterior abdominal wall, the patient experiences discomfort.
- Shchyotkin-Blumberg syndrome. A person feels strong cramps when trying to guide his hand under the right iliac region.
- Sitkovsky syndrome. Soreness increases to a maximum when the patient lies on his left side.
Methods of self-diagnosing inflammation
To recognize appendicitis at home, there are several techniques. Need to do the following.
Lie on the floor or bed. Arms are located along the body. The legs are bent at the knees and slightly apart. The assistant presses the right lower quadrant of the abdomen with fingers of a hand and sharply tears off the arm. A sign of appendicitis is the development of pain. The pain may spread to the groin area, the umbilical region or the left side (rarely occurs).
The man lies on the floor, hands stretches along the body, legs straight. You need to lift one leg above the floor. The assistant must strike the heel of the patient. Then you need to do the same manipulation with the other leg. When an appendix becomes inflamed, a person will feel pain in the right side of the abdomen when hitting the corresponding limb.
To check the suspicion, you can cough. If the problem exists, the person will feel pain in the area of the appendix projection.
It is necessary to lay the patient on his back and extremely gently palpate the stomach. In the presence of pathology, the anterior abdominal wall will be tense.
If there is a suspicion on the development of the disease in a child, it is necessary to track the development of characteristic behavior. The baby will constantly squat down and cry a lot. To determine the development of the disease itself, you have to walk around the room. In the case of an inflammatory process in the lumen of the cecum in the abdomen, pain will be felt with each step.
The intensity depends on the current stage of the disease. Home diagnosis of appendicitis helps to learn about the disease at the very beginning of development. This greatly reduces the likelihood of serious complications.
Methods of self-determination of appendicitis
How to recognize appendicitis? To independently verify if you have inflammation in the appendix, you can do the following:
- Lie on a flat surface - bed or floor. Arms should be placed along the body, legs should be slightly apart, then bent at the knees. In this case, the second person should lightly press the fingers of the right hand on the area in the lower right corner of the abdomen, and then sharply remove the hand. If at this point there is pain, you need to consult a doctor. With appendicitis, the groin, navel or left side also often hurt.
- To lie on the floor, place your hands along the body, and straighten your legs. First, raise the right leg by 50-60 degrees. At this point, the second person should quite remove the edge of the hand on the heel. Similar actions need to be done with the left foot. Pain in the right abdomen - the characteristic symptoms of appendicitis.
- To understand whether a child’s stomach hurts, you should look for specific symptoms. If the baby crouches abruptly and cries a lot, this indicates the development of inflammation.
- To independently diagnose appendicitis, you can try to cough. Echoes of pain will occur in the right corner of the abdomen.
- If you suspect appendicitis, you need to ask the person to walk. With inflammation of the appendix, the stomach hurts while walking. If each step is accompanied by discomfort, we can talk about the development of appendicitis.
- It is necessary to gently feel the stomach. The tension of the abdominal wall will help to identify appendicitis.
These symptoms in an adult or child should be a signal to consult a doctor, because there is a risk of rupture of the appendix or chronic inflammation.
What can not be done with suspected appendicitis?
In such situations it is strictly prohibited:
- Take laxatives or painkillers. Such actions will prevent the doctor to diagnose inflammation of the appendix in a timely manner.
- Take drugs for the intestines or stomach. They can cause an intense chemical reaction that will rupture the appendix.
- Eat food before consulting a doctor. In case of inflammation of the appendix, an emergency surgical intervention may be required, and before it can be done you need to refuse to eat. In addition, food can provoke irritation of the intestines, which will lead to a multiple increase in pain.
- Apply a heating pad or a warming compress to the stomach. Heat exposure will cause an acceleration of the inflammatory process.
If you have a stomach ache and fever, in no case be delayed. In such a situation should call an ambulance.
Diseases with similar symptoms
To find out the inflammation of the appendix, often requires additional examinations. This is due to the fact that the primary symptoms of the disease resemble the signs of other pathologies. These include:
- Crohn's disease,
- inflammation of the uterus, tube or ovary,
- renal colic,
- peptic ulcer
- colitis and enterocolitis,
- testicular inflammation
- inflammation of the small intestine,
- rupture or stretching of the anterior abdominal muscles.
To identify inflammation of the appendix, it is necessary to analyze the symptoms and conduct additional studies:
- Urine and blood tests. When an inflammation of the appendix urine analysis remains normal, and this eliminates the pathology of the kidneys. Through the analysis of blood it will be possible to identify the inflammatory process, but it will not be possible to determine the exact localization.
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity. This is the fastest and most reliable method for the diagnosis of appendicitis.
- CT scan. This study is prescribed for doubts about the correctness of the diagnosis.
Now you know how to determine appendicitis at home in an adult and a child. It is very important for timely surgical intervention. Therefore, the first symptoms of the disease should make a person call an ambulance - the slightest delay can provoke dangerous complications.
Features and causes of inflammation of the appendix
In most people, the appendix is localized behind the cecum. The vermiform process is able to burst from the accumulated pus due to a special partition that separates the intestinal lumen from the cavity of atavism. It prevents food waste from appearing in the appendix.
Inflammation in the process develops due to the long stagnation of the feces, the effects of infections or parasites. Several etiologies of the occurrence of the pathological process are classified:
- helminthic invasion
- penetration of pathogenic microorganisms
- stagnation theory
- a consequence of an immune response
In some cases, the appendix can be squeezed by surrounding tissues or twisted, causing damage to the septum and outflow of feces into the bone. After ingestion of foreign substances, the mucous membrane of the organ is damaged, which causes appendicitis.
The infection process can trigger several factors:
- Obstruction of the lumen of the appendix. The organ cavity is closed, so the contents can not leave the body through the cecum.
- Vascular pathology. Thrombosis, vasculitis, impaired tissue microcirculation or the development of segmental necrosis can provoke putrefactive processes in the process of the cecum, which lead to its subsequent rupture.
- Disorders of the neuromuscular system. There is a stretching of the appendix or increased peristalsis of the smooth muscles of the intestine. As a result, mechanical damage can lead to rupture of soft tissues and the development of appendicitis.
The abdominal organs are closely interrelated not only by being close to each other, but also by the frequent interlacing of the network of capillary and arterial vessels. Therefore, if the infectious process starts in the intestine, decay products or pathogens can freely enter the appendix due to the general blood flow.
At risk for the development of acute appendicitis are people who have one or more precipitating factors:
- overeating, alimentary obesity,
- no treatment for infections with systemic spread,
- immunodeficiency state
- predisposition to the development of an allergic reaction.
The attending physician will help to understand what appendicitis looks like and what the consequences are.
Symptoms of appendicitis. First signs
There are several characteristic symptoms that accompany the development of the inflammatory process in the process of the cecum:
- Pain syndrome in some cases is accompanied by sharp gagging, stomach cramps and nausea. There is reflex vomiting. If the patient empties the stomach cavity before the onset of pain, this means the absence of appendicitis. Otherwise, you need to hold a palpation of the abdomen to clarify the discomfort and, if necessary, call for medical assistance. Reflex vomiting after the sensation of acute pain is more often observed in patients in childhood and old age.
- In rare cases, the patient has diarrhea or constipation.
- When inflammation of the appendix there are violations of the organs of the urogenital system. In 25% of patients, there is a frequent urge to urinate, pain develops in the ureter, and in addition to the pain syndrome on the right side of the abdomen, there is a pulling sensation in the bladder.
- Heart rhythm disorders develop - tachycardia occurs, blood pressure jumps.
- Against the background of the inflammatory process, the body temperature rises to subfebrile values of + 37 ... 39 ° C. This is due to the release into the blood of a large number of leukocytes, increased heart rate and an increase in blood flow velocity. The patient feels muscular weakness, begins to tend to sleep, there is disgust for food and a complete lack of appetite.
In the presence of concomitant diseases, the clinical picture of appendicitis is eroded, because the symptoms present can cause the development of another pathological process.
Signs of inflammation of the appendix develop in a complex. In rare cases, the appearance of chronic appendicitis may occur.
At the initial stage, the progressive pathological process does not have precise localization. The pain is felt in the navel, migrates to the epigastric region and back to the lower abdomen. After 2-3 hours in the presence of appendicitis on the right, the pain begins to increase sharply. This effect is due to the spread of the inflammatory process on the surrounding appendix soft tissue and parietal peritoneum.
Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders suggest that such floating pain is a sign of gastritis or overeating. But this phenomenon is called Kocher symptom, which allows you to diagnose appendicitis in the early stages of its development and serves as the basis for urgent hospitalization.
For acute appendicitis is characterized by constant pain, which can subside in a state of rest and increase sharply when moving. If the symptom is felt for more than 2 hours, it is impossible to drink analgesics. In this case, palpable area of the appendix for the presence of inflammation. Pain symptom increases with physical activity, during muscle contractions, coughing, breathing, turning and moving. The patient’s condition deteriorates dramatically if you turn him from right to left side.
If the pain suddenly dulled - this may indicate the development of peritonitis due to a rupture of an inflamed appendix.
In this situation, the risk of death increases by 60%. When the appendix bursts, the purulent contents spread through the body along with the blood and infect the nervous tissue. It is necessary as soon as possible to conduct a surgical operation to the patient to remove the remnants of the appendix and to clean the peritoneum from pus and feces.
The increase in pain and fever
After 4-5 hours after the onset of pain, the discomfort gradually increases. Due to inflammation in the blood, the number of leukocytes increases, which causes a temperature rise of more than + 37.3 ° C and a blood circulation rate. In acute inflammation of the appendix, the patient tries not to move, does not walk, and lies in the same posture on the right side to dull the pain. In some cases, the pain can intensify with deep breathing.
Nature of pain
Appendicitis without pain is impossible. Pain symptom remains acute, manifests itself gradually over 2-3 days. Severe pain can spread to the back of the peritoneum and the pelvic area, which causes the lower back and lower abdomen to hurt. This symptom is called migratory.
If the discomfort does not go away for more than 2 hours, it is required to call the medical team. You can start an independent diagnosis, but it is strictly forbidden to neglect the help of specialists.
Consequences and complications
When appendicitis burst, the patient's condition deteriorates dramatically and in most cases he loses consciousness. This is the most dangerous outcome of the inflammatory process. Due to damage to the septum between the cecum and the appendix when the sore process is broken, the stool and pus are released into the abdominal cavity and peritonitis develops. The patient requires emergency surgery.
The following symptoms are characteristic of peritonitis:
- sudden spread of pain throughout the abdomen,
- facial features are sharpened, paleness of the skin is observed,
- a sharp deterioration in well-being,
- increase in heart rate to 130 beats / min,
- loss of consciousness or sudden exacerbation of anxiety and restlessness.
Many people are wondering whether appendicitis can not burst and what the consequences will be. With the correct treatment of minor inflammation with medications, a positive dynamic of recovery is possible. But if the appendix remains inflamed and does not rupture, soft tissue necrosis begins.
Inflammation of the appendix in babies
Appendicitis in infants and preschool children is difficult to identify. During this period, internal organs and systems continue to form. The growth of bones and soft tissues leads to a change in the initial site of intestinal appendix localization. The child is difficult to talk about their feelings. He is under great stress, not understanding what is happening to him and how to report it. Parents should not ignore the constant crying and complaining about pain.
Despite the accelerated regeneration, children are more difficult to endure operations and infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to take the child to the doctor. The inpatient pediatrician will help identify the cause of the onset of symptoms and prescribe appropriate treatment.
It is important to remember that children do not like to be alone in hospitals. Because of this, they often lie about normal health and can tolerate severe pain. In such cases, the child can not be trusted because appendicitis is a threat to his life.
Appendicitis in a child
The most difficult task for the doctor is to determine appendicitis in a small child. If children constantly cry and complain about not passing pain, you should immediately call an ambulance.
Up to 2 years, the pathological process develops extremely rarely, due to unprepared for full digestion of the digestive system.
Therefore, in 90% of cases, adolescents fall into the hospital with a diagnosis of acute inflammation of the appendix.
The clinical picture in children over 7 years of age coincides with the classic appendicitis manifestations in adult patients. The difficulty in determining the pathology arises due to the immature psychological state of the child. He can be naughty and cry from fatigue, not from pain. Children can’t say exactly how pain is and where it is most severe. Therefore, doctors have identified several distinctive symptoms that are characteristic of a child with inflammation of intestinal atavism:
- when he squats, he holds his stomach,
- folds in the fetal position and does not allow to touch or change the position of the body,
- after the appearance of pain the child will periodically wake up,
- in children, body temperature can rise to + 40 ° C,
- the pain intensifies when bending to the right side and in the process of changing clothes,
- persistent nausea and uncontrolled vomiting.
After the first day of the onset of inflammation, the child’s condition deteriorates dramatically. Lackiness develops, there is no appetite and strength for physical activity. When you touch the belly, children begin to scream and cry.
When visiting the hospital should be remembered that the effects of surgery have a strong impact on the children's body. Therefore, it is important to prevent the development of appendicitis and to know in advance the reasons for the occurrence of pathology in childhood:
- Weak immunity. Frequent catarrhal and viral diseases of the respiratory system, influenza, and infections can lead to a depletion of the immune system. Antibiotics, which are necessary in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, can aggravate the condition.
- Parasites and swallowing of foreign objects. Children can eat sunflower seeds along with husks, eat orange peels, or absorb berries with bone. Indigestible debris can lead to blockage of the appendix.
- Obesity, frequent overeating and excess protein in the diet.
You can not ignore the appearance characteristic of appendicitis symptoms. To exclude the disease is required to seek medical help.
Appendicitis in pregnant women
Appendicitis in pregnant women is a frequent occurrence that occurs during the second trimester of embryonic development. The pain in the pathological process of the patient is confused with the characteristic pain syndrome from constipation or fetal movements. Against the background of the inflammatory process, a woman’s heart rate rises, shortness of breath appears, and the temperature increases. Nausea and vomiting in this case are not specific signs of lesions of the rectal appendage, since they may be signs of toxicosis.
The severity and localization of pain depend on the pressure force of the uterus on the inflamed process. The longer the pregnancy, the stronger the uterine endometrium begins to put pressure on the appendix. As a result, the appendage of the cecum begins to rise, changing the localization of pain.
This increases the risk of preterm birth, intestinal failure, placental abruption and peritonitis. Therefore, in case of suspected appendicitis, a woman should immediately consult a doctor in order to secure her life and ensure the normal embryonic development of the unborn child.
Acute appendicitis in people in old age
Appendicitis in old age is more difficult to diagnose. This phenomenon is due to the natural aging processes in the body - after 50 years the pain threshold rises, so patients do not pay attention to the discomfort and tolerable pain in the lower right abdomen.
There is a feature of an attack of inflammation, manifested in the form of a small tumor at the location of the process. Edema develops after 2-3 days of constant pain.
The body temperature practically does not increase, but nausea and vomiting are observed more often than in patients aged 20 to 50 years. Diarrhea or constipation is characteristic of older age, so patients do not complain of stool retention or modification of fecal masses. Therefore, in 15-35% of cases, doctors can make the wrong diagnosis.
A rare pathological event occurs only in 1% of people over 30 years old who have previously suffered acute inflammation of the appendix. Symptoms of appendicitis of the chronic form repeat a classical clinical picture. At the same time, the symptoms are mild, there is no fever. The patient feels pain syndrome constantly, the pain increases with raising the right leg. This causes vomiting and nausea, which dulls the feeling of hunger. After emptying the stomach relief does not occur.
Because of the characteristic pain in the abdominal cavity, a person is not able to move independently. The patient reflexively turns over to the right side and tightens his knees to the stomach in an effort to reduce pain. If there is a suspicion of chronic appendicitis, it is strictly prohibited:
- take painkillers
- wrap the patient in a blanket, because the inflammatory process in these conditions can intensify and develop into acute appendicitis,
- refuse to call an ambulance to the patient.
When an appendix ruptures, peritonitis develops, which, if not properly treated, can be fatal for 7 days. It is more difficult to diagnose chronic form appendicitis in pregnant women, in children and in old age, in patients with diabetes mellitus, in cases of HIV infection and in the presence of a malignant neoplasm. In the latter case, the pain of an inflamed appendix is often confused with tumor growth and the spread of metastases.
How to quickly identify appendicitis in men and women?
In order to avoid peritonitis and other negative consequences in case of rupture of an inflamed appendix, one should know the clinical manifestations of the disease and have time to diagnose the pathology at home. The first characteristic sign of appendicitis in 95-97% of cases is pain in the right side. The syndrome can be acute and permanent. In some cases, the pain can periodically recede.
In women, an ovary is located next to the appendix, so the diagnosis is complicated. Emerging pain may indicate inflammation of the appendages. Therefore, people are wondering how to understand what hurts, appendicitis or ovary. The answer to the dilemma will be several signs of acute inflammation of the appendix:
- if you press and sharply release your fingers from the place where sharp pain comes from, the pain will increase many times,
- unpleasant sensations are constantly present and spread to the lower back,
- the pain must be sharp or stabbing, the pulling feeling is evidence of inflammation of the ovary,
- abdominal cramps do not allow you to straighten and move,
- there are nausea and vomiting, after which the state of health does not improve.
In men, in the absence of diseases of the digestive and urinary systems, with the appearance of acute pain on the right side or a hard abdomen, only inflammation of the process is diagnosed when touched. You should also pay attention to other related symptoms:
- High body temperature. If for a long time, temperature indicators increase and do not fall, then with the exclusion of other infectious and inflammatory diseases, they indicate the presence of appendicitis. Unlike women, in men the temperature can rise to + 40 ° C.
- Nausea and emetic urge. When intestinal atavism is inflamed, vomiting occurs reflexively. A person feels a constant aversion to food. Women empty the stomach more often than men.
- Diarrhea and constipation. These symptoms are rare, but may also indicate the onset of inflammation. At the same time, intestinal disorders often develop with food intoxication.
It is important to call an ambulance to accurately determine appendicitis and perform the operation in time. With the rupture of appendicitis in both men and women there is a sharp pain, a sudden attack of severe vomiting and loss of consciousness.
The risk of death in case of peritonitis is higher in the male body, therefore, when a sore appendix ruptures, it is important to perform a surgical operation within 30-45 minutes. If after this time the help was not received, then the systemic intoxication of the whole organism begins. Pus, pathogens and decomposition products enter the bloodstream and spread to other organs, including the brain.
To determine appendicitis at home helps tactile test, which allows to identify the pathological process by mechanical means. The patient must be placed on his back on a flat, non-springy surface. It is necessary to ask to relax the abdomen so that muscle tension in the abdominal cavity does not provoke pressure on the appendix or other soft tissues and does not cause pain. If the stomach remains firm, it indicates the beginning of the pathological process.
It is necessary to open the palm and gently press on the area where the appendix is located. After 2-3 seconds, it is necessary to remove the hand sharply. When appendicitis, the sheets of peritoneum will contact the affected area, which will cause increased pain. It is recommended to retest from the back in the absence of a characteristic reaction, because the localization of the appendix is individual for each person.
You can knock bent fingers along the right side. Mechanical movements also cause peritoneal friction, which causes a sharp pain to the patient. The symptom may be aggravated by the tension of the pectoral muscles during coughing, talking, and strong laughter. Pain syndrome is able to migrate or spread to the pelvic area, to give in the back.
An alternative way to diagnose the inflammatory process is a light tapping on the right and left sides of the palm of the hand or phalanges of the fingers along the lower edge of the rib processes. Moreover, it is necessary to start from the side of the abdomen and continue the test on the back. The pain should increase in time with the beats. If there is no discomfort on the left side, this is a clear sign of appendicitis.
The need for first aid
When appendicitis is necessary to call an ambulance as soon as possible. Without the provision of medical care on the background of a ruptured appendix with a high probability of possible fatal outcome. The patient should not hide the sensations or symptoms that have appeared, because they will allow him to accurately diagnose the pathology and perform the operation in time. It is necessary to describe in detail the state of health since the first signs appeared and tell you about the state 2-3 days before the incident.
Ultrasound and blood tests
For laboratory tests on appendicitis, a patient is taken blood and asked to pass urine. This is necessary to exclude other diseases of the pelvic organs and the abdominal cavity. In the study of blood on the background of the inflammatory process there is a high level of leukocytes with a predominance of neutrophils. Urinalysis allows us to distinguish the pathology of the appendix from kidney damage and urinary tract. If intestinal atavism is located next to the ureter, then a small number of red blood cells can be found in the urine.
To identify the inflammation of the appendix of the cecum with intra-abdominal abscess and to determine the atypical locations of its location, an ultrasound is performed.
The accuracy of ultrasound, depending on the clinical picture of the disease and the anatomical features of the structure of the body varies from 71 to 97%.
Instructions for determining an adult
The procedure should involve two people, it is difficult to determine the disease on their own. It is possible to determine appendicitis at home by the following methods:
- Take a horizontal position. It is permissible to lie on a bed or on the floor, as long as the surface is level. Hands down along the body. Legs slightly apart, try to bend them. When bending the legs of another person presses on the lower right corner of the abdomen and dramatically removes his hands. At the time of taking away the pain should flare up - the help of a doctor is required, this is appendicitis. Perhaps the pain syndrome will be located in the genital area, on the left or near the navel.
- Lying on the floor, arms extended along the body, legs straight. You need to raise your right leg to the level of 50 degrees.The helper should strike the heel of the outstretched leg with the edge of the palm. The same procedure is repeated with the left foot. The manifestation of pain on the right - there is appendicitis.
- Independent diagnosis of appendicitis is possible with coughing. The pain intensifies and responds in the right side.
- Walking is considered an important symptom of an ongoing inflammatory process. Each step will begin to respond with pain and discomfort, localized on the right.
- With self-peritoneal palpation, it is possible to grope tense muscles and a solid process, which indicates the development of the disease. In a healthy person, when palpating, the muscles are relaxed, the abdomen is soft, without pain.
Doctors recommend a small test for appendicitis at home:
- The patient lies on the right side. It is necessary to execute movements accurately so as not to provoke mechanical damages.
- Then the person adopts the pose of the embryo: the bent legs gradually pull up to the rib cage.
- Learn the sensations of the patient. If the pain subsides, it means appendicitis.
- In this position, the patient is delayed by three minutes.
- After you need a man turned on his left side and stretched his legs.
- Learn feelings in this position. A sharp increase in the uncomfortable state allows identifying the development of the inflammatory process in the appendix.
The difference in symptoms in a child and during pregnancy
With inflammation of the appendix in a pregnant woman, the pain syndrome is somewhat shifted to the side. During the period of fetal growth, all internal organs underwent a change in location. Discomfort during pregnancy is higher.
A child cannot always say that his stomach hurts, show where the pain is and describe the nature of the pain correctly. Adults need to independently check and find out the severity of the symptoms. If the child is constantly squatting, there is frequent crying for no apparent reason - this indicates inflammation of the appendage. Also sometimes marked bloating and regular vomiting. An additional sign of the development in the children's body of the inflammatory process is refusal to eat, sluggish condition.
Identifying inflammation is a top priority, but it is worth pointing out what cannot be done categorically if self-diagnosing confirmed appendicitis:
- Do not wait for the development of complications with the appearance of temperature, accompanied by pain in the abdomen. Seek medical attention immediately.
- It is strictly forbidden to take any painkillers or laxatives. Their reception lubricates the manifestation of symptoms and does not allow to make a diagnosis correctly, and therefore, provide expert assistance in time.
- It is also worth refusing to take gastric medications or medications for the intestines. The chemical compounds contained in them are able to react with the contents of the inflamed process, which will lead to its rupture and the development of peritonitis, which is often fatal.
- It is undesirable to eat and drink before the ambulance crew arrives. The only treatment for appendicitis is surgery, i.e. will remove the inflamed process. The stomach and intestines should be free from food debris. Digestion of food is accompanied by irritation of the intestinal tract walls, which leads to increased pain.
First of all, thinking about appendicitis can be caused by abdominal pain. Most often, if it is an inflammation of the appendix, the pain is localized mainly on the right side or near the navel. The pain may eventually move from the center of the abdomen to the right and descend, but not reach the border of the pelvic bones. Remember that in pregnant women, appendicitis may change its location depending on the duration of the pregnancy, so the pain may be slightly higher.
Try to lie flat on a hard surface and press a little on the stomach in the area of pain. If, even with a fairly light touch, you experience a sharp pain in your right side, call an ambulance immediately.
Usually when you press on the stomach, you should feel that it is soft, your fingers slightly press through the fabric and immerse it in them. One of the symptoms of appendicitis will be a hard stomach, to some extent even hard. Beyond this, pay attention if there is swelling. Get medical help right away.
Try to get up and walk upright. At the first signs of inflammation of appendicitis, it is impossible to do this without feeling strong pain. And if you try to "curl up," with your legs tucked up to your chest, the pain can be much less.
You should also pay attention to the other signs of appendicitis, it is not at all necessary that they will manifest everything at the same time, just some of them are enough to know for sure that the time has come to ask for help from doctors:
You should not postpone a visit to the doctor if you have a very high temperature (38 ° - 39 °). In the event that it is much higher - call an ambulance,
Chills and excessive sweating indicate the presence of inflammation in the body,
Constipation, especially if vomiting is added to it, clearly makes you aware of an inflammation of the appendix,
Diarrhea, especially if there are particles of blood in it, says the same thing,
Pain in the back, similar to renal colic,
False urge to defecate.
What exactly is not worth doing if the question is about the possible inflammation of the appendix:
If, in addition to abdominal pain, you have a high temperature, you should not wait, it is better to call a doctor or an ambulance.
In no case do not take any painkillers or laxatives, it will only aggravate the situation when making the diagnosis by specialists.
Do not take any drugs for the stomach or intestines, they can only cause a strong chemical reaction that will trigger an appendix rupture.
Try to refuse to eat before medical care, you may need surgery. This should also be done in order not to cause irritation of the intestinal mucosa, which can greatly increase the pain.
When should I call an ambulance?
If you observe several signs of appendicitis, especially if they are accompanied by vomiting and severe pain, call an ambulance immediately!
After the doctors come to you, it is very important to describe exactly all your symptoms and signs. Do not disregard any violation that occurred in the last 2-3 days (whether it is vomiting or diarrhea). Be sure to notify the doctor about the first pain, which could not pay attention.
Consider that in order for the diagnosis to be accurate, the doctor needs to examine you completely, including palpating the abdomen, in order to exclude peritonitis from the list of possible diagnoses. If necessary, the doctor may do a rectal examination to confirm or deny appendicitis. With peritonitis, the abdominal muscles will be very tense.
With an implicit or blurred diagnosis, additional examinations are often prescribed: urinalysis and blood tests, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, a probe (a thin rod-shaped instrument designed for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in various cavities and channels of the human body), and so on.
Some good advice
The most dangerous complication of appendicitis is its rupture. During tissue stratification, all its contents are in the abdominal cavity, which is sterile, and infection gets there. This can cause the development of peritonitis.
It should be remembered that in children the first signs of appendicitis may appear differently, due to the immaturity of some body systems. In addition, not all children can clearly and clearly explain where, how and what they have pain. Most often, the child suffers pain considering that it just hurts the intestines, while it may refuse to eat and strongly want to sleep. Therefore, if the baby abandoned his favorite dish, you should be wary and find out the reason that bothers him. Not all people have the symptoms and signs described above.
Classic symptoms do not appear in people who fall into the following categories:
pregnant women in the 3rd trimester,
organ transplant patients
Diseases with similar symptoms
It is not always possible to recognize appendicitis at the first examination without additional analyzes and examinations. This happens only because the primary symptoms of the appendix are very similar to the signs of other diseases that painfully "give" to the same area.
So, here is a small list of such diseases:
Crohn's disease (also referred to as terminal ileitis),
ulcer and its perforation,
inflammation of the small intestine,
rupture, sometimes stretching, anterior abdominal muscles and more.
Far from always making an accurate diagnosis helps ultrasound of the pelvic organs and the abdominal cavity. This is due to the fact that on the ultrasound machine you can see something or simply not see it because of the imperfection of the equipment or the skills of a specialist. Only laparoscopy can give a 100% result when making a diagnosis.
Causes of appendix inflammation
Despite the rapid development of medicine in all its areas until the end to explore all the causes of inflammation of the appendix has not yet succeeded. Appendicitis is referred to as inflammatory diseases that often go unnoticed and manifest suddenly. To predict its manifestation is impossible.
Inflammation caused by various microorganisms (anaerobes, staphylococci, E. coli, streptococci, etc.) occurs in the appendix of the cecum.
Often the result of inflammation of the appendix is excessive overload of the body protein food: frequent overeating and obesity on the basis of eating. Modern people spend a lot of time sitting at work, and then at home near a computer, such a sedentary lifestyle can also provoke inflammation of appendicitis.
How to avoid appendicitis?
In order to minimize the risk of inflammation of appendicitis, it is very important to maintain proper nutrition. At the same time, try to use only easily digestible proteins in your diet. They are contained mainly in a variety of dairy products.
Also daily need to eat fresh fruits and vegetables. The most useful will be grown in their garden or purchased from summer residents. Try not to overeat, always watch the calories consumed.
Periodically do fasting days and monitor the health of the digestive tract, do not allow the occurrence of constipation.
A rupture of appendicitis is a risk to die, so do not try to cure it yourself, but take the tests from your doctor or call an ambulance.
Remember, a decrease in pain or, on the contrary, their excessive increase may indicate the onset of serious complications.
It is very important to know the first signs and symptoms of appendicitis in order to seek help from specialists in time.
At the slightest suspicion of appendicitis, especially in small children, immediately call an ambulance, it is better to make sure once again that this is not an inflammation of the appendix.
1 case from medical practice
A young 28-year-old boy with a pain in his right side came to the doctor's appointment. When asked how long the pain began, the answer was that it was about 8 hours ago. Bock began to hurt completely unexpectedly, for no apparent reason, while his temperature rose slightly to 37.8 °.
During the examination, the doctor determined that the pain spreads from the left side in the area just below the navel. At first glance, the symptoms spoke of peritonitis.
The patient was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The young man was immediately taken to the surgical department in the operating room for laparotomy.
During the operation, it appears that the process of the cecum is not altered in spite of the presence of a serous effusion in the peritoneum. It was decided to examine more carefully the small and large intestine. As a result, an inflamed diverticulum (embryonic bile duct) was found at their junction. It was removed because it was he who caused the symptoms similar to appendicitis. Most often, the inflammation of the diverticulum occurs without any symptoms, and only in 5% of people this is detected during laparoscopy or some other operation.
2 case from medical practice
A 65-year-old man with suspicion of acute appendicitis was taken by ambulance to the emergency room of the hospital. Were taken the necessary analyzes and conducted additional surveys. It was decided to operate, as it was not possible to eliminate the pain in other ways. The patient agreed to the operation.
During the operation, the surgeon discovered an inflamed appendix appendix, which has a dense consistency. Its length was 3.5-4 cm, fibrin plaque and clear signs of inflammation were present. The appendix was removed. After the operation, the wounds began to fester a little, despite this the patient was discharged home.
After 21 days, an opinion was received after examination of the appendix. Outcome: appendicitis cancer. The necessary data was transferred to the clinic at the place of observation of the patient. He was called to the reception for consultation with an oncologist. The man chose to refuse further treatment. After 6 months he died.
3 case from medical practice
An 82-year-old woman was brought to the hospital by ambulance with complaints of lower abdominal pain. According to the results of the examination, the history of the disease and the interview of the patient, a conclusion was made about the need for urgent surgery to remove acute appendicitis.
The patient was prepared for surgery and brought to the operating room of the surgical department. As a result of laparoscopy, the surgeon did not notice any abnormalities of the appendix. However, when examining the junction of the small and large intestine, a small hole was found through which the contents of the intestine entered the abdominal cavity. The cause of such a hole was a foreign body (fish bone), which was safely removed. Intestinal perforation stitched. Necessary postoperative treatment and observation was carried out. The patient was discharged home in a satisfactory condition.
These are just a few real cases from the practice of surgeons. The described cases only confirm the statement that you should not hope for a case and wait until everything passes by itself. It is better to immediately call an ambulance and be calm while assisting qualified doctors.
The signs of appendicitis do not always speak of inflammation of the appendix of the cecum, often with similar symptoms, pathologies that are completely unexpected for the patient, on which his health depends, are found.
Education: Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry (1996). In 2003, he received a diploma from an educational and scientific medical center for managing the affairs of the President of the Russian Federation.
Plastic food containers: facts and myths!